Chapter 1: Bioenergetics:. Thermodynamics –First law of thermodynamics, second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs free energy, endergonic & exergonic reactions,. Standard state free energy changes-DG, DG0 and DG’0, Relationship between equilibrium constant and DG’o, Feasibility of reactions. Simple problems, ATP-Structure, properties and energy currency of the cell, Importance of Coupled reactions, High energy compounds, simple problems. Introduction to Metabolism – Catabolism, anabolism, catabolic, anabolic and amphibolic pathways
Chapter 2: Carbohydrate Metabolism: Introduction, Aerobic and anaerobic pathways: Glycolysis and its regulation , Gluconeogenesis and its regulation.TCA cycle, amphibolic & anaplerotic reactions. Electron Transport chain, Oxidative phosphorylation, & production of ATP, balance sheet of glucose oxidation, Oxidative stress., Pentose phosphate pathway (HMP shunt) & its regulationPhotosynthesis – ‘light’ and ‘dark’ reactions: C4-pathway.
Chapter 3: Lipid Metabolism: Beta – oxidations of saturated & unsaturated fatty acids. Ketone bodies, production during starving and diabetes Biosynthesis of fatty acids – Acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction, Fatty acid synthase complex, biosynthesis of palmitate, energetics, Regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis. Biosynthesis of triacylglycerols, Biosynthesis of cholesterol, regulation.
Chapter 4: Amino Acid/ Nucleic Acid Metabolism: Biodegradation of amino acids – deamination, transamination, decarboxylation, urea cycle including its regulation. Biosynthesis of amino acids, Disorders of amino acid metabolism (phenylketonuria, alkaptonuria, Biologically active amines Recycling of Purine and Pyrimidine nucleotides by salvage pathways. Lesch-Nyhan syndrome & Gout.