Introduction: Statistics, Biostatistics, Frequency distribution Measures of central tendency: Mean, Medi- an, Mode- Pharmaceutical examples
Measures of dispersion: Dispersion, Range, standard deviation, Pharmaceutical problems
Correlation: Definition, Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation, Multiple correlation – Pharmaceuticals examples
Regression: Curve fitting by the method of least squares, fitting the lines y= a + bx and x = a + by, Multiple regression, standard error of regression– Pharmaceutical Examples
Probability: Definition of probability, Binomial distribution, Normal distribution, Poisson’s distribution, properties – problems Sample, Population, large sample, small sample, Null hypothesis, alternative hypoth- esis, sampling, essence of sampling, types of sampling, Error-I type, Error-II type, Standard error of mean (SEM) – Pharmaceutical examples
Parametric test: t-test(Sample, Pooled or Unpaired and Paired) , ANOVA, (One way and Two way), Least Significance difference
Non Parametric tests: Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Friedman Test
Introduction to Research: Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, Experimental Design Tech- nique, plagiarism
Graphs: Histogram, Pie Chart, Cubic Graph, response surface plot, Counter Plot graph
Designing the methodology: Sample size determination and Power of a study, Report writing and presen- tation of data, Protocol, Cohorts studies, Observational studies, Experimental studies, Designing clinical trial, various phases.
Blocking and confounding system for Two-level factorials
Regression modeling: Hypothesis testing in Simple and Multiple regression models
Introduction to Practical components of Industrial and Clinical Trials Problems:
Introduction and sale of over the counter, and Rational use of common over the counter medicationStatistical Analysis Using Excel, SPSS, MINITAB®, DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS, R – Online Statistical Software’s to Industrial and Clinical trial approach.
Design and Analysis of experiments:
Factorial Design: Definition, 22, 23 design. Advantage of factorial design
Response Surface methodology: Central composite design, Historical design, Optimization Techniques
‘Biostatisitics and Research Methodology – Theory’ is a course offered in the eighth semester of B. Pharm program at School of Pharmacy, Health Sciences campus, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham.
Scope & Objectives
Course Duration: 45 Hours
To understand the applications of Biostatistics in Pharmacy. This subject deals with descriptive statistics, Graphics, Correlation, Regression, logistic regression, Probability theory, Sampling technique, Parametric tests, Non Parametric tests, ANOVA, Introduction to Design of Experiments, Phases of Clini- cal trials and Observational and Experimental studies, SPSS, R and MINITAB statistical software’s, analyz- ing the statistical data using Excel.
Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to:
- Know the operation of M.S. Excel, SPSS, R and MINITAB®, DoE (Design of Experiment)
- Know the various statistical techniques to solve statistical problems
- Appreciate statistical techniques in solving the problems.
Recommended Books (Latest Editions)
- Pharmaceutical statistics- Practical and clinical applications, Sanford Bolton, publisher Marcel Dek- ker Inc. NewYork.
- Fundamental of Statistics – Himalaya Publishing House- S.C.Guptha
- Design and Analysis of Experiments –PHI Learning Private Limited, R. Pannerselvam,
- Design and Analysis of Experiments – Wiley Students Edition, Douglas and C. Montgomery