Characterization Techniques: Structure of solids: crystal systems and space groups, Bravais lattices, direct and reciprocal lattice, Bragg law, powder diffraction and phase identification, single crystal diffraction, structure factor, X-ray crystal structure determination. Fundamental principles and application to Material characterization: Macroscopic and microscopic techniques– visual examination-optical and electron microscopy (SEM,TEM); chemical and mineralogical analysis techniques – X-ray and neutron diffraction; spectroscopic techniques- image analysis, and nondestructive techniques. Methods for Structure Determination-X-ray diffraction; Analytical techniques for the determination of Structure of construction materials- FTIR, AFM and thermal analyses (sample preparation), energy dispersive analysis (EDAX) - Characterisation of rheological behavior: Rheological parameters; Classifications of fluids, time independent and time-dependent fluids, elastic viscous fluids. Constitutive equation of rheology, shear and extensional viscosities, dependence of viscosity on temperature, pressure, molecular weight, strain rate and time. Flow curve. Viscoelasticity - effect of rate of strain, temperature and time on mechanical behavior; Creep, creep compliance, stress relaxation; Dynamic mechanical properties. Flow analysis using rheological models. Measurement of rheological properties. Application of rheology in cement-based materials.