Introduction to Toxicology: Definition - scope - history - relationship to other sciences - dose-response relationship - sources of toxic compounds - Classes of Toxicants - broad overview of toxicant classes such as metals, agricultural chemicals, food additives - contaminants, toxins, solvents, drugs, and cosmetics - history, exposure route, and toxicity of the non-essential metals - cadmium, lead, and mercury - medical treatment of metal poisoning - classes of agricultural chemicals - Toxins - source, including microbial, fungal, algal, plant and animal - examples - Brief discussions - food additives and contaminants – solvents - therapeutic drugs - drugs of abuse - combustion products - cosmetics.
Exposure Classes, Toxicants in Air, Water, Soil, Domestic and Settings: Occupational Air, water and soil as primary media for human exposure to various classes of chemical toxicants in environmental, domestic, and occupational settings - historic and present status of air pollution and air quality - introduction to the major classes of soil and water pollutants - sources, exposure routes and potential adverse health effects - Classes of occupational toxicants - route of exposure and permissible levels - specific examples of concern.
Toxicant Analysis and Quality Assurance Principles: Introduction to procedures, principles and operation of analytical laboratories in toxicology. Summary of the general policies - analytical laboratory operation, analytical measurement systems, quality assurance (QA) - quality control (QC) procedures.
Environmental Risk Assessment : Environmental risk assessment procedures - particular environmental risk problem - appropriate endpoints - development of conceptual models, analyzing exposure – effects, information - characterizing exposure - ecological effects - management of risks.
Future Considerations for Environmental and Human Health : Changes in toxicology - evaluation of future risk assessment - more fundamental aspects of toxicology - in vivo and in vitro toxicity - biochemical toxicology - molecular toxicology - development of selective toxicants.