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Unit 1

Introduction to Toxicology: Definition – scope – history – relationship to other sciences – dose-response relationship – sources of toxic compounds – Classes of Toxicants – broad overview of toxicant classes such as metals, agricultural chemicals, food additives – contaminants, toxins, solvents, drugs, and cosmetics – history, exposure route, and toxicity of the non-essential metals – cadmium, lead, and mercury – medical treatment of metal poisoning – classes of agricultural chemicals – Toxins – source, including microbial, fungal, algal, plant and animal – examples – Brief discussions – food additives and contaminants – solvents – therapeutic drugs – drugs of abuse – combustion products – cosmetics.

Unit 2

Exposure Classes, Toxicants in Air, Water, Soil, Domestic and Settings: Occupational Air, water and soil as primary media for human exposure to various classes of chemical toxicants in environmental, domestic, and occupational settings – historic and present status of air pollution and air quality – introduction to the major classes of soil and water pollutants – sources, exposure routes and potential adverse health effects – Classes of occupational toxicants – route of exposure and permissible levels – specific examples of concern.

Unit 3

Toxicant Analysis and Quality Assurance Principles: Introduction to procedures, principles and operation of analytical laboratories in toxicology. Summary of the general policies – analytical laboratory operation, analytical measurement systems, quality assurance (QA) – quality control (QC) procedures.

Environmental Risk Assessment : Environmental risk assessment procedures – particular environmental risk problem – appropriate endpoints – development of conceptual models, analyzing exposure – effects, information – characterizing exposure – ecological effects – management of risks.

Future Considerations for Environmental and Human Health : Changes in toxicology – evaluation of future risk assessment – more fundamental aspects of toxicology – in vivo and in vitro toxicity – biochemical toxicology – molecular toxicology – development of selective toxicants.

Text Books

  1. Ernest Hodgson, “Modern Toxicology”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., (2004).


  • John Wright, “Environmental Chemistry”, Routledge, (2003).
  • A K De, “Environmental Chemistry”, New Age International, (2003).
  • Fritz Helmet, “Environmental Chemistry”, Sarup and sons (Delhi), (2003).

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