Durability: Life expectancy of different types of buildings – influence of environmental elements such as heat, moisture, precipitation and frost on buildings- Effect of biological agents like fungus, moss, plants, trees, algae - termite control and prevention - chemical attack and impact of pollution on building materials and components - Aspects of fire damage and assessment.
Building failures – causes and effects - cracks in buildings – types, classification. Investigation and condition assessment – Semi-destructive and Non-destructive testing methods.
Common defects in buildings and control measures - maintenance philosophy - phases of maintenance.
Materials for repair - special mortar and concretes, concrete chemicals, admixtures, special cements and high grade concrete.
Techniques for repair - surface repair – material selection – surface preparation - rust eliminators and polymer coatings for rebars – repair methods of cracks in concrete and masonry - epoxy injection. Guniting and shotcreting. Waterproofing methods.
Strengthening measures - f lexural strengthening, beam shear capacity strengthening, column strengthening, shoring, under pinning and jacketing.
Conservation of historic buildings - materials and methods - examples.