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Course Detail

Course Name Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems
Course Code 22PHY546
Credits 3


Unit 1

Basic Principles
Review of Faradays laws, thermodynamics of electrochemical cells and kinetics of electrochemical reactions. Performance evaluation of energy storage devices – cell voltage – capacity – specific and volumetric energy and power densities, Peukert curves, Ragone plot, discharge profiles. Factors affecting the performance. Design and classification of electrochemical storage devices, importance of nanotechnology. Battery components – current collector, separator, electrolyte and active materials.

Unit 2

Primary Batteries
The chemistry, fabrication and performance aspects, packing classification and rating of the following batteries – zinc-carbon – Leclanche type, zinc alkaline – duracell, zinc/air, zinc-silver oxide batteries, lithium primary cells – liquid cathode – solid cathode and polymer electrolyte types.

Unit 3

Secondary Batteries
Fabrication, performance characteristics, electrode and electrolyte materials of the following batteries: Lead acid and VRLA, nickel-cadmium, nickel-zinc, nickel-metal hydride batteries, silver peroxide, lithium-ion batteries, lithium polymer cells. Advanced Batteries for electric vehicles, specifications – sodium-beta and redox batteries.

Unit 4

Reserve Batteries and Fuel Cells
Reserve batteries – water activated, electrolyte activated and thermally activated batteries – remote activation – pyrotechnic materials. Fuel Cells-Principle, chemistry and functioning – carbon, hydrogen-oxygen, proton exchange membrane (PEM), direct methanol (DMFC), molten carbonate electrolyte (MCFC) fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells and outline of biochemical fuel cells. Fuel cell stack technology.

Unit 5

Types – double layer, hybrid and pseudo capacitors, symmetric and asymmetric capacitors. Mechanism of energy storage, materials for supercapacitors, carbon materials-activated carbon, carbide-derived carbon, CNT, graphene, mesoporous carbon, metal oxides, metal sulphides, conducting polymers. Effect of ratio of ion and molecule sizes and pore sizes. Electrolytes- aqueous, organic and ionic liquid. Determination of capacitor performance-cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, impedance spectroscopy. Flexible and wearable supercapacitors.


  1. Beard, K.W., 2019. Linden’s handbook of batteries. McGraw-Hill Education.
  2. Bagotsky, V.S., Skundin, A.M. and Volfkovich, Y.M., 2015. Electrochemical power sources: batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors. John Wiley & Sons.
  3. Allen, J. and Bard, R.L., 2000. Faulkner. Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications, John Wiley and Sons. Inc. New York.
  4. Conway, B.E., 2013. Electrochemical supercapacitors: scientific fundamentals and technological applications. Springer Science & Business Media.

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