Background Theory : Origin of potential – electrical double layer – reversible electrode potential – standard hydrogen electrode – emf series – measurement of potential – reference electrodes (calomel and silver/silver chloride) indicator and ion selective electrodes – Nernst equation – irreversible processes – kinetic treatment – ButlerVolmer equation – Overpotential, activation, concentration and IR overpotential – its practical significance – Tafel equation and Tafel plots – exchange current density and transfer coefficients.
Batteries: Primary batteries : The chemistry, fabrication and performance aspects, packing classification and rating of the following batteries: (The materials taken their function and significance, reactions with equations, their performance in terms of discharge, capacity, and energy density to be dealt with). Zinc-carbon (Leclanche type), zinc alkaline (Duracell), zinc/air, zinc-silver oxide batteries; lithium primary cells – liquid cathode, solid cathode and polymer electrolyte types and lithium-ferrous sulphide cells (comparative account).
Secondary batteries : ARM (alkaline rechargeable manganese) cells, Lead acid and VRLA (valve regulated (sealed) lead acid), nickel-cadmium, nickel-zinc, nickelmetal hydride batteries, lithium ion batteries, ultra thin lithium polymer cells (comparative account). Advanced Batteries for electric vehicles, requirements of the battery – sodium-beta and redox batteries.