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Unit 1

Background Theory : Origin of potential – electrical double layer – reversible electrode potential – standard hydrogen electrode – emf series – measurement of potential – reference electrodes (calomel and silver/silver chloride) indicator and ion selective electrodes – Nernst equation – irreversible processes – kinetic treatment – ButlerVolmer equation – Overpotential, activation, concentration and IR overpotential – its practical significance – Tafel equation and Tafel plots – exchange current density and transfer coefficients.

Unit 2

Batteries: Primary batteries : The chemistry, fabrication and performance aspects, packing classification and rating of the following batteries: (The materials taken their function and significance, reactions with equations, their performance in terms of discharge, capacity, and energy density to be dealt with). Zinc-carbon (Leclanche type), zinc alkaline (Duracell), zinc/air, zinc-silver oxide batteries; lithium primary cells – liquid cathode, solid cathode and polymer electrolyte types and lithium-ferrous sulphide cells (comparative account).

Secondary batteries : ARM (alkaline rechargeable manganese) cells, Lead acid and VRLA (valve regulated (sealed) lead acid), nickel-cadmium, nickel-zinc, nickelmetal hydride batteries, lithium ion batteries, ultra thin lithium polymer cells (comparative account). Advanced Batteries for electric vehicles, requirements of the battery – sodium-beta and redox batteries.

Unit 3

Reserve batteries and Fuel cells : Reserve batteries – water activated, electrolyte activated and thermally activated batteries – remote activation – pyrotechnic materials. Fuel Cells:Principle, chemistry and functioning – carbon, hydrogen-oxygen, proton exchange membrane (PEM), direct methanol (DMFC), molten carbonate electrolyte (MCFC) fuel cells and outline of biochemical fuel cells.

Electrochemical Processes : Principle, process description, operating conditions, process sequence and applications of Electroforming – production of waveguide and plated through hole (PTH) printed circuit boards by electrodeposition; Electroless plating of nickel, copper and gold; Electropolishing of metals; Anodizing of aluminium; Electrochemical machining of metals and alloys.

Text Books

  1. Derek Pletcher and Frank C. Walsh, “Industrial Electrochemistry”, Blackie Academic and Professional, (1993).
  2. Dell, Ronald M Rand, David A J, “Understanding Batteries”, Royal Society of Chemistry, (2001)


  • Christopher M A, Brett, “Electrochemistry – Principles, Methods and Applications”, Oxford University, (2004).
  • Watanabe T, “Nano-plating: microstructure control theory of plated film and data base of plated film microstructure”, Elsevier, Oxford, UK (2004).
  • Kanani N, “Electroplating and electroless plating of copper and its alloy”, ASM International, Metals Park, OH and Metal Finishing Publications, Stevenage, UK (2003).
  • Lindon David, “Handbook of Batteries”, McGraw Hill, (2002).
  • Curtis, “Electroforming”, London, (2004).
  • Rumyantsev E and Davydov A, “Electrochemical machining of metals”, Mir, Moscow, (1989).

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