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Course Detail

Course Name Energy Balance and Thermodynamics
Course Code 15CHE201
Program B. Tech. in Chemical Engineering
Semester Three
Year Taught 2019


Unit 1

Systems, Properties, Processes, Cycles; State of a system and state postulate; State and path functions; Temperature and zeroth law of thermodynamics; Pressure and pressure measurement; Energy and its forms: Potential and Kinetic energy, Internal energy; Energy sources; Energy transfer – Heat, W ork, Electricity; Mechanisms of heat transfer; Work: Moving boundary work, Flow work, Shaft, spring, elasticity, surface tension, and electrical work; Energy balance – First law for open and closed systems, steady and unsteady state processes.

Phases and phase diagrams of a pure substance, Saturation, Superheating, T-v, P-v, P-T diagrams and the P-v-T surface; Enthalpy; Property tables; Ideal and nonideal gases: van der Waals, Soave-Redlich-Kwong, Peng-Robinson equations of state; Virial equation and its physical meaning; Compressibility factor.

Unit 2

Estimation of heat capacities: Solids, Liquids, Gases, Mixtures, Temperature dependence; Enthalpy changes: Mixing, Fusion, Vaporization – Clayperon equation, Clausius-Clayperon equation, Watson equation, Trouton’s rule, Kistyakowsky equation; Energy analysis of gas cycles; Energy analysis using property tables.

Mechanical energy balance – Bernoulli equation; Energy transfer by mechanical work: Nozzles and diffusers, Turbines, compressors and pumps, Throttling valves, Pipe and duct flow; Energy transfer by heat: Heat exchangers, Boilers and Furnaces; Energy balance in unit operations: Mixers and splitters; Drying; Evaporation; Crystallization; Leaching; Adsorption; Liquid-Liquid Extraction; Absorption; Distillation; Recycle, Bypass, Purge.

Unit 3

Standard heat of reactions – Combustion and Formation; Hess’s law; Effect of temperature and pressure; Adiabatic reaction temperature; Recycle in reactors; Combined material and energy balance in flowsheets – Degree of freedom analysis; Modular and overall equation-solving approaches.

Entropy and thermodynamic temperature; Combined first and second law for closed systems and cycles: Carnot cycle; Refrigerators, Heat pumps; Thermodynamic efficiency and coefficient of performance; Second law for open systems – Entropy balance; Statistical meaning of entropy.

Text Books

  1. Narayanan, K. V., and Lakshmikutty, B., Stoichiometry and Process Calculations, Prentice Hall India, New Delhi, 2009
  2. Cengel, Y. A., and Boles, M. A., Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 7th Special Indian Edition, McGraw Hill India, New Delhi, 2011
  3. Rao, Y. V. C., Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, Universities Press, 1997


  • Murphy, R. M., Introduction to Chemical Processes: Principles, Analysis, Synthesis, McGraw Hill International Edition, New York, 2007
  • O’Connell, J. P., and Haile, J. M., Thermodynamics: Fundamentals for Applications, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005

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