Air and air pollution (earth’s atmosphere): Regions - ozone - CFC and other chemicals - catalytic decomposition of ozone - ‘ozone hole’ formation - Air pollution due to gas emission from industries - Atmospheric aerosols – dust, combustion products, aerosol concentration and lifetimes - Automobile exhausts, smog and effects - Acid rain - chemistry of acid rain, roll of meteorology, greenhouse gases and global warming - air pollution due to jet engines.
Water and water pollution (hydrosphere): Physical and chemical properties of water - microbiological processes - carbon, nitrogen cycles - Water pollution - polluting agents - indices of pollution, heavy metal pollution and toxicity - BOD and COD determination - suspended solids - determination of other ions by photometric methods - Chemistry of anaerobic process, use of Effective Microorganisms.
Aerobic processes - wastewater treatment systems (brief description only) - anaerobic and aerobic - sewage treatment, primary, secondary and tertiary processes - water reuse and recycle. Eutrophication of lakes, nitrogen and phosphorus in effluents - Drinking water standards - sources - fluoride and arsenic in water, purification, sterilization - chemistry of chlorination - water purification for domestic use - reverse osmosis - nano filters and membranes.
Industrial Pollution and its control: Industrial pollution and waste waters from various types of industries - environmental pollution due to paper mills, textile mills etc., and its control. Solid waste disposal - methods - solid waste from mining and metal production and its disposal - Electrochemical treatment of pollution control, electro-coagulation and flocculation - Green chemical processes and green solvents - reaction conditions to control industrial pollution.
Other types of pollution: Soil pollution - agricultural pollution - use of chemical fertilizers - Organic chemicals and environment, dioxins and furans - chemistry of some of the pesticides, insecticides and herbicides, ill effects due to uncontrolled use - Bulk storage of hazardous chemicals and disasters, Radioactive pollution, radiation units, sources - exposure and damage - safety standards - radioactive wastes and their disposal - Toxicological substances, testing of toxic substance, enzyme inhibition and biochemical effects of toxic chemicals on humans.
Sampling and Measurements of Pollutants: Sampling and analysis techniques of air pollutants (brief outline only) - analysis of particulate matter and lead - Sampling and measurements of water pollutants - organic loadings, phosphates and nitrogen compounds - monitoring of water quality - water test kits, various analytical methods (brief outline only).