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Unit 1

Air and air pollution (earth’s atmosphere): Regions – ozone – CFC and other chemicals – catalytic decomposition of ozone – ‘ozone hole’ formation – Air pollution due to gas emission from industries – Atmospheric aerosols – dust, combustion products, aerosol concentration and lifetimes – Automobile exhausts, smog and effects – Acid rain – chemistry of acid rain, roll of meteorology, greenhouse gases and global warming – air pollution due to jet engines.

Water and water pollution (hydrosphere): Physical and chemical properties of water – microbiological processes – carbon, nitrogen cycles – Water pollution – polluting agents – indices of pollution, heavy metal pollution and toxicity – BOD and COD determination – suspended solids – determination of other ions by photometric methods – Chemistry of anaerobic process, use of Effective Microorganisms.

Unit 2

Aerobic processes – wastewater treatment systems (brief description only) – anaerobic and aerobic – sewage treatment, primary, secondary and tertiary processes – water reuse and recycle. Eutrophication of lakes, nitrogen and phosphorus in effluents – Drinking water standards – sources – fluoride and arsenic in water, purification, sterilization – chemistry of chlorination – water purification for domestic use – reverse osmosis – nano filters and membranes.

Industrial Pollution and its control: Industrial pollution and waste waters from various types of industries – environmental pollution due to paper mills, textile mills etc., and its control. Solid waste disposal – methods – solid waste from mining and metal production and its disposal – Electrochemical treatment of pollution control, electro-coagulation and flocculation – Green chemical processes and green solvents – reaction conditions to control industrial pollution.

Unit 3

Other types of pollution: Soil pollution – agricultural pollution – use of chemical fertilizers – Organic chemicals and environment, dioxins and furans – chemistry of some of the pesticides, insecticides and herbicides, ill effects due to uncontrolled use – Bulk storage of hazardous chemicals and disasters, Radioactive pollution, radiation units, sources – exposure and damage – safety standards – radioactive wastes and their disposal – Toxicological substances, testing of toxic substance, enzyme inhibition and biochemical effects of toxic chemicals on humans.

Sampling and Measurements of Pollutants: Sampling and analysis techniques of air pollutants (brief outline only) – analysis of particulate matter and lead – Sampling and measurements of water pollutants – organic loadings, phosphates and nitrogen compounds – monitoring of water quality – water test kits, various analytical methods (brief outline only).

Text Books

  1. Gary W. Van Loon and Stephen J. Duffy, “Environmental Chemistry”, Oxford University Press, (2000).
  2. Ajay Kumar Bhagi and G. R. Chatwal, “Environmental Chemistry”, Himalaya Publishing House, (2003).


  • John Wright, “Environmental Chemistry”, Routledge, (2003).
  • A K De, “Environmental Chemistry”, New Age International, (2003).
  • Fritz Helmet, “Environmental Chemistry”, Sarup and sons (Delhi), (2003).
  • Clair N Sawyer, Perry L McCarty and Gene F Parkin, “Chemistry for Environmental Engineering”, McGraw Hill, (1994).
  • Jack Barrett, “Chemistry in your Environment”, Albion Publishing Ltd., (1994).
  • Thomas G Spiro and William M Stigliani, “Chemistry of the Environment”, Prentice Hall, (2002).
  • Kudisia V P and Ritu, “Environmental Chemistry”, Pragati Prakashan, Meerut, (2000).

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