Environmental cycles - Soil and water - Environmental interaction relating to geotechnical problems - Effect of pollution on soil - water behaviour.
Origin, nature and distribution of soil - Description of individual particle - Soil fabric and structure - Gravitational and surface forces - Intersheet and interlayer bonding in the clay minerals - Basic structural units of clay minerals - Isomorphous substitution - Kaolinite mineral - Montmorillonite mineral - Illite mineral - Electric charges on clay minerals - Ion exchange capacity - Diffused double layer - Adsorbed water - Soil structure - Methods for the identification of minerals (introduction only).
Effect of drying on Atterberg limits - Shrinkage, swelling and cracking characteristics of soil - Electrochemical characteristics of soil-water system - Sensitivity of soil to environment - Soil-water-air interaction - Activity, sensitivity, causes of sensitivity - Influence of exchangeable cations, pH and organic matter on properties of soils - Permeability of soils - Hydraulic conductivity of different types of soils - Darcy’ s law and its validity - Factors affecting permeability
Sources, types and composition of different wastes - Characteristics and classification of hazardous wastes - Generation rates - Potential problems in soils due to contaminants.
Ground water flow - Sources of ground water contamination - Contaminant transport - Pollution of aquifers by mining and liquid wastes - Ground water pollution downstream of landfills - Transport mechanisms.
CPCB rules and regulations on waste handling and management - Criteria for selection of sites for waste disposal - Disposal techniques -Disposal systems for typical wastes.
Ground modification and waste modification techniques in waste management - Ground modification - Mechanical modification, hydraulic modification, chemical modification.
Liners and covers for waste disposal - rigid and flexible liners - Leachate and gas collection system - Engineered landfills (including basal liner and cover liner systems) – components - design criteria.
Hydrological design for ground water pollution control.
Soil contamination and remediation technology for both ground and aquifers.