Design of mass transfer equipment based on the concept of equilibrium stage;
Distillation: vapor-liquid equilibria, Raoults law and deviations from ideality, methods of distillation; Equilibrium and operating line concepts; Design calculations by McCabeThiele and Ponchon-Savarit methods; Continuous contact distillation (packed tower) design; Extractive and azeotropic distillation, low pressure distillation; Steam distillation; Tray tower equipment.
Absorption: Design of tray tower absorbers; Operating characteristics of stagewise and differential contactors; Design calculations for single stage, multistage concurrent and countercurrent absorbers.
Liquid-liquid extraction: Equilibrium in ternary systems; Design calculations for batch and continuous extractors, equipment – spray, packed and mechanically agitated contactors; Pulsed extractors, centrifugal extractors.
Leaching: Solid-liquid equilibria; Equipment – batch and continuous types; Calculation of number of stages.
Adsorption and Ion exchange: Theories of adsorption of gases and liquids; Principle of ion exchange; Equipment for batch and continuous operation; Design calculations for adsorption and for ion exchange resins.
Miscellaneous separation processes: Introduction to membrane separation process; Solid and liquid membranes; Reverse osmosis; Electrodialysis.