Elementary concepts – density, specific weight, specific gravity, viscosity – dynamic and kinematic viscosity – surface tension, capillarity, vapour pressure, compressibility – Compressible and incompressible fluids; Concept of gauge and absolute pressure, measurement of pressure using manometers of different types. Hydrostatic force on plane and curved surfaces, center of pressure; buoyancy and stability of submerged and floating bodies;
Flow types - Unsteady, Steady and non-uniform, laminar and turbulent flows – Reynolds number; Ideal flow – rotational and irrotational, stream function, potential function – Velocity vectors; Path line, streak line and stream line; Derivation of continuity and momentum equation for steady three dimensional flows - Application of one dimensional steady flow; circulation and vorticity; Laminar flow between parallel plates – Taylor-Coutte flow and Poiseulle flow; Flow in closed conduits Laminar flow through circular pipe – Shear stress and velocity profiles; pressure gradient, Hagen-Poiseulle’s equation; Power required to overcome pressure drop; Velocity profile in turbulent flows;
Two dimensional flows - Boundary layer; Boundary layer equation; Blasisus solution for boundary layer flow; boundary layer separation and its control.
Bernoulli’s and Euler’s equations; Application of Bernoulli’s equations to flow meters - Pitot tube, Nozzle, Venturi meter and Orifice meter; Coefficient of discharge for flow meters and velocity measurement;
Concept of friction and friction factor from drag on a flat plate; Friction loss in laminar and turbulent flows, Darcy-Weisbach equation, Moody chart; Minor losses – Pipe fittings and pipe networks, equivalent length for pipe in pipe fittings;
Flow past immersed bodies – drag and lift, drag and lift coefficients, flow though beds of solids, one dimensional motion of particle through fluid, terminal velocity, hindered settling, Fluidization – Conditions for onset of fluidization, Hydraulic radius of porous medium, Porous medium Reynolds number, minimum fluidization velocity; Pressure drop through porous media for spherical and non-spherical particles – Ergun equation; Types of fluidization;
Applications Transportation of fluids – pipes, fittings, valves; Pump terminology – Suction and Delivery heads, Suction lift, Cavitation, Net positive suction head and Power requirement; Positive displacement pumps – Reciprocating pump and gear pump; Rotary pumps - Centrifugal Volute pump, Pressure raise in centrifugal pump; Pump characteristics;
Significance of dimensionless numbers; Dimensional analysis and model testing – Bucking ham pi-theorem; Application of dimensionless analysis - Flow through pipe, Settling of particles in a fluid, Centrifugal pump, Reynolds and Froude numbers and their use in model testing;