Fuels - Solid fuels - Classification, preparation, cleaning, analysis, ranking and properties - action of heat, oxidation, hydrogenation, carbonization, liquefaction and gasification.
Liquid fuels – Petroleum - origin, production, composition, classification, petroleum processing, properties, testing - flow test, smoke points, storage and handling.
Secondary liquid fuels - Gasoline, diesel, kerosene and lubricating oils. Liquid fuels - refining, cracking, fractional distillation, polymerization. Modified and synthetic liquid fuels. ASTM methods of testing the fuels.
Gaseous fuels - Types, natural gas, methane from coal mine, water gas, carrier gas, producer gas, flue gas, blast furnace gas, biomass gas, refinery gas, LPG - manufacture, cleaning, purification and analysis. Fuels for spark ignition engines, knocking and octane number, anti knock additives, fuels for compression, engines, octane number, fuels for jet engines and rockets.
Flue gas analysis by chromatography and sensor techniques.
Combustion: Stochiometry, thermodynamics. Nature and types of combustion processes - Mechanism - ignition temperature, explosion range, flash and fire points, calorific value, calorific intensity, theoretical flame temperature. Combustion calculations, theatrical air requirements, flue gas analysis, combustion kinetics – hydrogen - oxygen reaction and hydrocarbon - oxygen reactions.
Rocket propellants and Explosives - classification, brief methods of preparation, characteristics; storage and handling.