Impulse momentum principle – application – impact of jet-force exerted by a jet on normal, inclined and curved surfaces for stationary and moving cases – torque in rotating machines – jet propulsion.
Hydroelectric power: low, medium and high head plants - Power house components – Micro-hydel schemes. Turbines - classifications – construction and working of Pelton Wheel, Francis and axial flow reaction turbines - selection of turbines – draft tube. Classification of pumps – Centrifugal pumps – types and working – characteristics. Reciprocating pumps - types and working – selection of pumps.
Open channel flow - Comparison with pipe flow, Types of channels - Classification of flow, uniform flow – Uniform flow using chezy’s and Manning’s formulae - Most efficient channel section – Circular, Rectangular and Trapezoidal channel sections, open channel section for constant velocity at all depths of flow. Specific energy and critical depth, Specific force curve, critical flow computation.
Non-uniform flow, Gradually Varied Flow, Dynamic equation for gradually varied flow, Different forms of the dynamic equation, Flow profiles in prismatic channels, integration of the varied flow equation - Computation of the length of the backwater curve and afflux. Rapidly Varied Flow - Hydraulic Jump, Hydraulic jump equations for a rectangular channel, Practical applications.
Rivers - their behaviour - Control and training. Design of stable channels in India - problem in India - Classification of irrigation canals, Canal alignment, Design procedure for an irrigation channel - Considerations for fixing longitudinal section of a channel - Cross sections of an irrigation channel, Maintenance of canals, Canals in alluvial soils – Regime Theory - Kennedy’s and Lacey’s Theories, Silting in canals, Scour and protection against scour. Canal lining - losses in irrigation canals, Advantages and disadvantages of lining, Types of lining. Water logging - Causes and preventive measures. Design of lined canals - irrigation canals - Kennedy’s Theory - Lacey’s Theory.