IEEE Protection Standards & Guides, Protection.
Characteristics: Reliability, Security, Speed, Selectivity and Economics.
Review of protection schemes: Over-current protection Differential Protection, Distance protection, quadrilateral relay, elliptical relay.
Numerical relay: principles, Data Acquisition Systems, RTU, IED.
Synchrophasor based Wide Area Monitoring Systems (WAMS): PMU, Data Sampling and signal conditioning, Use of FFT, DFT, Wavelet for protection algorithms. Fault location and identification.
Information and Communication Technology application to protective systems: ICT functions, ICT control of network for protection coordination, Common Format for Transient Data Exchange (COMTRADE). Protection in Distributed Generators (DGs), micro grids and smart grids. Power system protection testing: automatic testing, test methods, maintenance and field testing of relays.
Case study and simulations: ICT based fault detection identification and classification, Adaptive protection coordination.
Laboratories: Testing of numerical over current relays, under/over frequency relays & differential relays.