Course Title: 
Instrumental Methods of Analysis - Theory
Course Code: 
Year Taught: 
Undergraduate (UG)

'Instrumental Methods of Analysis - Theory' is a course offered in the seventh semester of B. Pharm program at School of Pharmacy, Health Sciences campus, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham.

Course Duration: 45 Hours


This subject deals with the application of instrumental methods in qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs. This subject is designed to impart a fundamental knowledge on the principles and in- strumentation of spectroscopic and chromatographic technique. This also emphasizes on theoretical and practical knowledge on modern analytical instruments that are used for drug testing.


Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to:

  1. Understand the interaction of matter with electromagnetic radiations and its applications in drug analysis
  2. Understand the chromatographic separation and analysis of drugs.
  3. Perform quantitative & qualitative analysis of drugs using various analytical instruments.

Unit I (10 Hours)

UV Visible spectroscopy

Electronic transitions, chromophores, auxochromes, spectral shifts, solvent effect on absorption spectra, Beer and Lambert’s law, Derivation and deviations.

Instrumentation - Sources of radiation, wavelength selectors, sample cells, detectors- Photo tube, Photomultiplier tube, Photo voltaic cell, Silicon Photodiode.

Applications - Spectrophotometric titrations, Single component and multi component analysis


Theory, Concepts of singlet, doublet and triplet electronic states, internal and external conversions, factors affecting fluorescence, quenching, instrumentation and applications

Unit II (10 Hours)

IR spectroscopy

Introduction, fundamental modes of vibrations in poly atomic molecules, sample handling, factors affecting vibrations

Instrumentation - Sources of radiation, wavelength selectors, detectors - Golay cell, Bolometer, Ther- mocouple, Thermister, Pyroelectric detector and applications

Flame Photometry -Principle, interferences, instrumentation and applications

Atomic absorption spectroscopy - Principle, interferences, instrumentation and applications

Nepheloturbidometry - Principle, instrumentation and applications

Unit III (10 Hours)

Introduction to chromatography

Adsorption and partition column chromatography - Methodology, advantages, disadvantages and applications.

Thin layer chromatography - Introduction, Principle, Methodology, Rf values, advantages, disadvantages and applications.

Paper chromatography -Introduction, methodology, development techniques, advantages, disadvantages and applications

Electrophoresis – Introduction, factors affecting electrophoretic mobility, Techniques of paper, gel, capil- lary electrophoresis, applications

Unit IV (08 Hours)

Gas chromatography - Introduction, theory, instrumentation, derivatization, temperature programming, advantages, disadvantages and applications

High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) - Introduction, theory, instrumentation, advantages and applications.

Unit V (07 Hours)

Ion exchange chromatography - Introduction, classification, ion exchange resins, properties, mechanism of ion exchange process, factors affecting ion exchange, methodology and applications

Gel chromatography - Introduction, theory, instrumentation and applications

Affinity chromatography - Introduction, theory, instrumentation and applications