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Course Detail

Course Name Interfacial Science and Engineering
Course Code 15CHE434
Program B. Tech. in Chemical Engineering
Year Taught 2019


Unit 1

Introduction – colloids, surfaces and interfaces, Colloids – classifications and characterizations. Colloids – preparation and purification methods – Surfaces and interfaces – definitions, description of different surface and interfaces, applications of interfacial engineering – Surface, interfacial tensions and measurement of interfacial tension using different methods – Surface properties.

Attractive forces and van der Waals interactions – Columbic forces and ionic, dipole interactions. Van der Waals forces in polar and non-polar media – Electrostatic and Electrokinetic theories.

Source of interfacial formation and electrical double layer (EDL) – Helmholtz model, Gouy-Chapmanmodel, Debye–Hückel theory on EDL, EDL thickness – Surface potential, Zeta potential, pH effects, calculations – Electroosmosis and Electrophoresis, types, applications.

Unit 2

Capillary theories, Capillary driving forces in liquid–fluid systems, Solid–Liquid– Fluid Systems: The Effect of Contact Angle – Capillary Flow and Spreading Processes, coefficients, petroleum recovery, measurement of capillary driving forces – Surface tension gradients, marangoni flow, contact angle hysteresis, dynamic contact angles, Practical capillary systems – wetting in fibers, water proofing, wicking process and detergency.

Adsorption – Gibbs surface excess, adsorption equation for Solid-Fluid interfaces, Gibbs adsorption isotherm – Physisorptionvs Chemisorption, Thermodynamic considerations, heterogeneous catalysis.

Catalytic poisons, promoters and adsorption isotherms at S-V interfaces, Langmuir, Freundlich, BET adsorption isotherms and surface area calculations, adsorption at S-L interfaces – Adsorption isotherms in solid–liquid systems, nature of the adsorbent surface, environmental effects – Colloidal stability – Coagulation, flocculation, mechanism for colloidal formation.

Unit 3

Colloidal behaviour, Lennard–Jones 6–12 potential, attractive forces, sources of colloidal stability, critical coagulation concentration -Coagulation kinetics – fast and slow, Smoluchowski equation, DLVO theory, reversible flocculation.

Emulsions – formation, emulsification methods-Emulsifiers and Stabilizing agents, types, functions.

HLB number, PIT and Application of HLB and PIT in Emulsion Formulation – Association colloids – vesicles, micelles and membranes -Surfactant solubility, krafft temperature, and cloud point – Surfactant liquid crystals, micelles, micelle formation – Critical micelle concentrations (CMC) – factors affecting CMC, additives – Vesicles and bilayer membranes – definitions, applications.

Optical properties – Light scattering, turbidity, light scattering theories – Scattering by small particles, large particles, Rayleigh, Debye and Mie scattering of particles – Foams, Aerosols, Foam stability and microfoams – Rheological properties of colloidal dispersions – viscosity, newtonian and non-newtonian fluids, Electroviscous effects.

Text Books

  1. Drew Myers, Surfaces, Interfaces, and Colloids: Principles and Applications. 2nd Ed., Wiley-VCH, 1999
  2. D. J. Shaw, Colloid & Surface Chemistry, 4th Edition, Butterworth-Hienemann, 2003,
  3. Intermolecular and Surface Forces, Jacob N. Israelachvili, Academic Press, 1992


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