Basic concepts– Spontaneous generation, Germ theory of diseases, Cell theory. Contributions of Antonie van leuwenhoek, Joseph Lister, Robert Koch, Louis Pasteur, Edward Jenner, John Tyndall, Sergei N. Winogradsky, Selman A waksman, Alexander Flemming, Paul Erlich, Fannie Hesse, Elie Metchnikoff, Kary Mullis. Development of pure culture methods.Cell ultra structure: Peptidoglycan structure and synthesis.Cytoplasmic matrix and components: Inclusion bodies.
Sterilisation and disinfection- Definitions, Principles. Methods of sterilization- Physical methods (Heat, Filteration), Radiation and Chemical methods. Control of sterilization and Testing of sterility. Microscopy – Principles, Light microscope, Phase Contrast, Dark field, Bright field, Fluorescent, Interference microscope (Stereo microscope), Confocal, Inverted microscope, and Electron microscope (TEM and SEM). Measurement of Microorganisms- Micrometry. Staining- Simple, Gram staining, Negative staining, Capsule staining, Spore staining, Flagellar staining, Nuclear staining and Acid fast staining.
Microbiological media, composition and types: selective and differential media Growth curve and growth kinetics. Influence of environemental factors for microbial growth. Nutritional groups of bacteria: overview Estimation of Microbes- Direct Microscopic count, Turbidometric assay, TVC- Indirect Method- CO2 liberation- Protein estimation- Maintenance and Preservation of cultures
Taxonomy– Principle and its types (Classical approach– Numerical, Chemical, Serological and Genetic). Bacterial taxonomy– Bergey’s manual of Systematic Bacteriology (Eubacteria and Archaebacterium).