Data loggers, Data Acquisition Systems (DAS), Direct Digital Control (DDC). Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA), sampling considerations. Functional block diagram of computer control systems, alarms, interrupts. Characteristics of digital data, controller software, linearization. Digital controller modes: Error, proportional, derivative and composite controller modes. PLC: Evolution, Components, advantages over relay logic, Architecture, Programming devices, Discrete and Analog I/O modules. Programming languages, Ladder diagrams, timers and counters. Instructions in PLC: Program control instructions, math instructions, sequencer instructions. Use of PC as PLC, Case studies using PLC. DCS Architectures, Comparison, Local control unit. Process interfacing issues. Communication facilities, configuration of DCS, displays, redundancy concept. Lab Practice: Simulation/hardware experiments in DAS, digital controllers, programming in PLC etc.