## Course Detail

 Course Name Logical Thinking in the West Course Code 21PHL504 Program M.A. in Philosophy Semester One Credits 4

### Syllabus

##### UNIT 1

Introduction to Logic
Definition of Logic – Subject Matter of Logic – The Nature and Scope of Logic – The Nature of Arguments: terms, premises and conclusion –Form and Validity – Truth and Validity.

##### UNIT 2

a) Deduction
Deduction – Logical Propositions – Traditional Classification of Propositions: Categorical and Conditional Propositions, Euler’s Circles – Modern. Classification of Propositions: Simple and Compound Propositions. Inference – Mediate and Immediate. Opposition of Propositions – Square of oppositions – Type of opposition. Immediate inference – Kinds of immediate inference.

b) Syllogism
Syllogism: meaning and definition – Structure of Syllogism – Kinds of Syllogism – Categorical Syllogism – Standard form of categorical Syllogism – Rules and fallacies of Categorical Syllogism – Mixed Syllogism –  Hypothetical and Disjunctive Syllogism – Dilemma – Fallacies -Fallacies of Relevance –Fallacies of Presumption –Fallacies of Ambiguity.

##### UNIT 4

Induction
Induction and Scientific Method – Types of Induction, Problem of Induction – Postulates of Induction – Analogy – Causation, Common Sense View of Causation – Mill’s definition of cause.

##### UNIT 5

Symbolic Logic
Difference between Classical Logic and Symbolic Logic – Symbolise Sentential Operators – Simple and Compound Statements – Truth- functional Compound Statements – Truth Tables for Conjunction, Negation, Disjunction, Conditional and Bi-conditional – Argument and Argument forms – Truth Table Method for Evaluating Arguments – Statement Forms -Tautologies, Contradictories and Contingents, Logical Equivalence – De Morgan’s Theorems – Formal Proof of Validity – Rules of Inference , Rules of Replacement, Conditional Proof, Indirect Proof, Quantification – Quantifiers, Singular and General Propositions, Symbolization of Categorical Propositions.

### Preamble

Logical Thinking in the West is a course offered in the first semester of the M. A. Philosophy Programme. The course is proposed mainly with the intention to give practical knowledge about the construction and evaluation of arguments, which is of utmost importance in academic presentations and discourses. It will familiarize the students with the basic themes and framework of the Aristotelian tradition in Western logic. The components of the course include mainly the basics of Aristotelian logic, its traditional and symbolic variants and the quantification theory. It will provide the opportunity for the learners to make a detailed study of the deductive, inductive and symbolic applications of logic.

### Course Objectives

1. To introduce the basics of Aristotelian logic.
2. To familiarize with the methods of deduction and induction.
3. To study the structure and components of syllogism.
4. To analyze the fallacies of reasoning.
5. To learn the origin and development of symbolic logic and quantification method.

### Course Outcomes

CO 1: Comprehension of the basic terms and frameworks in Aristotelian logic.
CO 2: Comparative understanding of deductive and inductive methods.
CO 3: Familiarity with the rules and techniques of symbolization in logic.
CO 4: Detailed study of symbolic logic and quantification rules.
CO 5:  Practical knowledge of logical analysis of arguments.
CO 6: Familiarity with the techniques of symbolization, quantification and evaluation of arguments.

None

### Textbook:

Copi, Irving M., Carl Cohen & Kenneth McMahon. Introduction to Logic.  Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 2014.

### References

A. Singh & C. Goswami. Fundamentals of Logic. Delhi: ICPR, 2001.
Copi, Irving M. Symbolic Logic. Pearson, 2015.
Jain, Krishna. A Textbook of Logic. New Delhi: D. K. Book World, 1947. https://archive.org/details/atextbookoflogickrishnajaind.k.bookworld_202003_180_J/page/n1/mode/2up
Patriak Hurley. A Concise Introduction to Logic. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1994.

### CO – PO Affinity Map

 PO PO 1 PO 2 PO 3 PO 4 PO 5 CO CO 1 2 3 1 3 3 CO 2 3 3 1 3 2 CO 3 2 3 2 3 2 CO 4 2 3 2 3 2 CO 5 2 3 1 3 1 CO 6 3 3 1 3 1

3 – strong, 2 – moderate, 1 – weak

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