Ultrasonics - production methods and properties - acoustic impedance - Doppler velocimetry - echo cardiography – resolution – speckle - ultrasound imaging - therapeutic use of ultrasound - use in diagnostics of cardiac problems.
X-rays – production – intensity - hard and soft X-rays - characteristic and continuous X-ray spectrum - attenuation of x-rays by hard and soft tissues – resolution – contrast X-ray imaging - fluoroscopy modes of operation - image quality - fluoroscopy suites - radiation dose – computed-aided tomography (CAT).
Nuclear medicine - principles of nuclear physics – natural radioactivity, decay series, type of radiation and their applications, artificially produced isotopes and its application, accelerator principles; Nuclear Isomerism, internal conversion - ideal energy for radiotherapy based on interactions. Radionuclide used in medicine - radioisotope production – dosimetry – safety - radiation hazards – PET.
Nuclear magnetic resonance physics - magnetic moment – magnetization – relaxation - nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – principle - chemical shift - magnetic resonance signal induction and relaxation - pulse sequencing and spatial encoding.
Laser physics – characteristics of laser radiation, mode locking - power of laser radiation - lasers as diagnostic tool - lasers in surgery - laser speckle, biological effects, laser safety management.