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Course Detail

Course Name Pathophysiology – Theory
Course Code BP204T
Program B. Pharm. (Regular/ Lateral)
Semester Two
Year Taught 2014 , 2015 , 2016 , 2017 , 2018


Unit I (10 Hours)

Basic principles of Cell injury and Adaptation: Introduction, definitions, Homeostasis, Components and Types of Feedback systems, Causes of cellu- lar injury,Pathogenesis (Cell membrane damage, Mitochondrial damage, Ribosome damage, Nuclear damage),Morphology of cell injury – Adaptive changes
(Atrophy, Hypertrophy, hyperplasia, Metaplasia, Dysplasia),Cell swelling, Intra cellular accumulation, Calcification, Enzyme leakage and Cell Death Acidosis &Alkalosis,Electrolyte imbalance

Basic mechanism involved in the process of inflammation and repair: Introduction, Clinical signs of inflammation, Different types of Inflammation, Mechanism of In- flammation – Alteration in vascular permeability and blood flow, migration of WBC’s,Mediators of inflammation,Basic principles of wound healing in the skin,Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis

Unit II (10 Hours)

Cardiovascular System: Hypertension, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease (angina, myocardial infarction, athero- sclerosis and arteriosclerosis)

Respiratory system: Asthma, Chronic obstructive airways diseases.

Renal system: Acute and chronic renal failure.

Unit III (10 Hours)

Haematological Diseases: Iron deficiency, megaloblastic anemia (Vit B12 and folic acid), sickle cell anemia, thalasemia, heredi- tary acquired anemia, hemophilia

Endocrine system: Diabetes, thyroid diseases, disorders of sex hormones

Nervous system: Epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, psychiatric disorders: depression, schizophre- nia and Alzheimer’s disease.

Gastrointestinal system: Peptic Ulcer

Unit IV (08 Hours)
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases, jaundice, hepatitis (A,B,C,D,E,F) alcoholic liver disease.
  • Disease of bones and joints: Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and gout
  • Principles of cancer: classification, etiology and pathogenesis of cancer
Unit V (07 Hours)

Infectious diseases: Meningitis,Typhoid, Leprosy, Tuberculosis
Urinary tract infections

Sexually transmitted diseases: AIDS, Syphilis, Gonorrhea


‘Pathophysiology – Theory’ is a course offered in the second semester of B. Pharm program at School of Pharmacy, Health Sciences campus, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham.

Scope & Objectives

Course Duration: 45 Hours


Pathophysiology is the study of causes of diseases and reactions of the body to such disease produc- ing causes.This course is designed to impart a thorough knowledge of the relevant aspects of pathology of various conditions with reference to its pharmacological applications, and understanding of basic patho- physiological mechanisms. Hence it will not only help to study the syllabus of pathology, but also to get baseline knowledge required to practice medicine safely, confidently, rationally and effectively.


Upon completion of the subject student shall be able to

  1. Describe the etiology and pathogenesis of the selected disease states;
  2. Name the signs and symptoms of the diseases; and
  3. Mention the complications of the diseases.


Recommended Books (Latest Editions)

  1. Vinay Kumar, Abul K. Abas, Jon C. Aster; Robbins &Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease; South Asia edition; India; Elsevier; 2014.
  2. HarshMohan; Text book of Pathology; 6th edition; India; Jaypee Publications; 2010.
  3. Laurence B, Bruce C, Bjorn K. ; Goodman Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics; 12th edition; New York; McGraw-Hill; 2011.
  4. Best, Charles Herbert 1899-1978; Taylor, Norman Burke 1885-1972; West, John B (John Burnard); Best and Taylor’s Physiological basis of medical practice; 12th ed; united states;
  5. William and Wilkins, Baltimore;1991 [1990 printing].
  6. Nicki R. Colledge, Brian R. Walker, Stuart H. Ralston;Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine; 21st edition; London; ELBS/Churchill Livingstone; 2010.
  7. Guyton A, John .E Hall; Textbook of Medical Physiology; 12th edition; WB Saunders Company; 2010.
  8. Joseph DiPiro, Robert L. Talbert, Gary Yee, Barbara Wells, L. Michael Posey; Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiological Approach; 9th edition; London; McGraw-Hill Medical; 2014.
  9. V. Kumar, R. S. Cotran and S. L. Robbins; Basic Pathology; 6th edition; Philadelphia; WB Saunders Company; 1997.
  10. Roger Walker, Clive Edwards; Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics; 3rd edition; London; Churchill Livingstone publication; 2003.

Recommended Journals

  1. The Journal of Pathology. ISSN: 1096-9896 (Online)
  2. The American Journal of Pathology. ISSN: 0002-9440
  3. Pathology. 1465-3931 (Online)
  4. International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology. ISSN: 1944-8171 (Online)
  5. Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology. ISSN-0377-4929.

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