Course Title: 
Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry II - Theory
Course Code: 
Year Taught: 
Undergraduate (UG)
School of Pharmacy

'Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry II - Theory' is a course offered in the fifth semester of B. Pharm program at School of Pharmacy, Health Sciences campus, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham.

Course Duration: 45 Hours


The main purpose of subject is to impart the students the knowledge of how the secondary metab- olites are produced in the crude drugs, how to isolate and identify and produce them industrially. Also this subject involves the study of producing the plants and phytochemicals through plant tissue culture, drug interactions and basic principles of traditional system of medicine


Upon completion of the course, the student shall be able

  1. To know the modern extraction techniques, characterization and identification of the herbal drugs and phytoconstituents
  2. To understand the preparation and development of herbal formulation.
  3. To understand the herbal drug interactions
  4. To carryout isolation and identification of phytoconstituents

Unit I (07 Hours)

Metabolic pathways in higher plants and their determination

  1. Brief study of basic metabolic pathways and formation of different secondary metabolites through these pathways- Shikimic acid pathway, Acetate pathways and Amino acid pathway.
  2. Study of utilization of radioactive isotopes in the investigation of Biogenetic studies.

Unit II (14 Hours)

General introduction, composition, chemistry & chemical classes, biosources, therapeutic uses and commercial applications of following secondary metabolites:

Alkaloids: Vinca, Rauwolfia, Belladonna, Opium,
Phenylpropanoids and Flavonoids: Lignans, Tea, Ruta
Steroids, Cardiac Glycosides & Triterpenoids: Liquorice, Dioscorea, Digitalis
Volatile oils: Mentha, Clove, Cinnamon, Fennel, Coriander,
Tannins: Catechu, Pterocarpus
Resins: Benzoin, Guggul, Ginger, Asafoetida, Myrrh, Colophony
Glycosides: Senna, Aloes, Bitter Almond
Iridoids, Other terpenoids & Naphthaquinones: Gentian, Artemisia, taxus, carotenoids

Unit III (06 Hours)

Isolation, Identification and Analysis of Phytoconstituents

  1. Terpenoids: Menthol, Citral, Artemisin
  2. Glycosides: Glycyrhetinic acid & Rutin
  3. Alkaloids: Atropine,Quinine,Reserpine,Caffeine
  4. Resins: Podophyllotoxin, Curcumin

Unit IV (10 Hours)

Industrial production, estimation and utilization of the following phytoconstituents: Forskolin, Sennoside, Artemisinin, Diosgenin, Digoxin, Atropine, Podophyllotoxin, Caffeine, Taxol, Vincristine and Vinblastine

Unit V (08 Hours)

Basics of PhytochemistryModern methods of extraction, application of latest techniques like Spectroscopy, chromatography and electrophoresis in the isolation, purification and identification of crude drugs.