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Course Detail

Course Name Physical Pharmaceutics II – Theory
Course Code BP403T
Program B. Pharm. (Regular/ Lateral)
Semester Four
Credits 4
Year Taught 2014 , 2015 , 2016 , 2017 , 2018


Unit I

Colloidal dispersions: Classification of dispersed systems & their general characteristics, size & shapes of colloidal particles, classification of colloids & comparative account of their general properties. Optical, kinetic & electrical properties. Effect of electrolytes, coacervation, peptization& protective action.

(07 Hours)

Unit II

Rheology: Newtonian systems, law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature, non-Newtonian systems, pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic, thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling Sphere, rotational viscometers Deformation of solids: Plastic and elastic deformation, Heckel equation, Stress, Strain, Elastic Modulus

(10 Hours)

Unit III

Coarse dispersion: Suspension, interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in suspensions, for- mulation of flocculated and deflocculated suspensions. Emulsions and theories of emulsification, micro- emulsion and multiple emulsions; Stability of emulsions, preservation of emulsions, rheological properties of emulsions and emulsion formulation by HLB method.

(10 Hours)

Unit IV

Micromeretics: Particle size and distribution, mean particle size, number and weight distribution, particle number, methods for determining particle size by different methods, counting and separation method, particle shape, specific surface, methods for determining surface area, permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness & flow properties.

(10 Hours)

Unit V

Drug stability: Reaction kinetics: zero, pseudo-zero, first & second order, units of basic rate constants, determination of reaction order. Physical and chemical factors influencing the chemical degradation of pharmaceutical product: temperature, solvent, ionic strength, dielectric constant, specific & general acid base catalysis, Simple numerical problems. Stabilization of medicinal agents against common reactions like hydrolysis & oxidation. Accelerated stability testing in expiration dating of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Photolytic degradation and its prevention

(10 Hours)


‘Physical Pharmaceutics II – Theory’ is a course offered in the fourth semester of B. Pharm program at School of Pharmacy, Health Sciences campus, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham.

Scope & Objectives

Course Duration: 45 Hours


The course deals with the various physica and physicochemical properties, and principles involved in dosage forms/formulations. Theory and practical components of the subject help the student to get a better insight into various areas of formulation research and development, and stability studies of pharma- ceutical dosage forms.


Upon the completion of the course student shall be able to

  1. Understand various physicochemical properties of drug molecules in the designing the dosage forms
  2. Know the principles of chemical kinetics & to use them for stability testing nad determination of expiry date of formulations
  3. Demonstrate use of physicochemical properties in the formulation development and evaluation of dos- age forms.

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