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Course Detail

Course Name Physics of Semiconductors
Course Code 22PHY541
Credits 3


Unit 1

Crystal Structure of Solids
Unit cell, Bravais lattices, Crystal systems, Crystal planes and Miller indices, Symmetry elements, Defects and imperfections – Point defects, Line defects, Surface defects and Volume defects.

Unit 2

Classical and Quantum Theories of Solids
Classical free electron theory assumptions, Drift velocity, Mobility and Conductivity, Drawbacks. Quantum free electron theory: Fermi energy, Density of States. Band theory of solids: Origin of energy bands, Effective mass, Distinction between metals, insulators and semiconductors.

Unit 3

Carrier Transport Phenomena
Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, Band structure of semiconductors, Carrier concentration in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, Electrical conductivity and Conduction mechanism in semiconductors, Fermi level in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors and its dependence on temperature and carrier concentration, Carrier generation – Recombination, Mobility, Drift and diffusion current, Hall effect.

Unit 4

Theory of p-n junction Diode and Transistors
p-n junction under thermal equilibrium, Forward bias, Reverse bias, Carrier density, Current, Electric field, Barrier potential, V-I characteristics, Junction capacitance and voltage breakdown. Bipolar junction transistor: p-n-p and n-p-n transistors: principle and modes of operation, current relations, V-I characteristics. Fundamentals of MOSFET, JFET, and Heterojunctions – quantum wells.

Unit 5

Optical Devices
Optical absorption in a semiconductor, electron-hole generation, Solar cells: p-n junction, conversion efficiency, Heterojunction solar cells, Photo detectors: Photo conductors, Photodiode, p-i-n diode, Light emitting diode (LED): Generation of light, Internal and external quantum efficiency,

Modern Semiconducting Devices: CCD-Introduction to nano devices, Fundamentals of tunneling devices, Design considerations, physics of tunneling devices.


Course Objectives: This course is intended to impart students, basic knowledge on crystallography, defects and imperfections in solids, classical and quantum free electron theories of metals along with band theory of solids, types of semiconductors and band structure. It is also aimed at improving the understanding of students related to basic theory and operations of various semiconductor devices such as p-n junction diode, BJT, MOSFET and semiconductor optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, LEDs and photodetectors.

Text Books & References

Text Books

  1. C. Kittel, “Introduction to Solid State Physics”, Wiley, Eighth Edition, 2012.
  2. D.A. Neamen, “Semiconductor Physics and Devices”, TMH, Fourth Edition, 2021.


  1. S.M. Sze, “Physics of Semiconductor Devices”, Wiley, Third Edition. 2015.
  2. P. Bhattacharya, “Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices”, Prentice Hall, 1996.
  3. M.K. Achuthan, K.N. Bhat, “Fundamentals of Semiconductor Devices”, TMH, 2007.
  4. J. Allison, “Electronic Engineering Materials and Devices”, TMH, 1990.

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