Power system operation – state transition and control – data acquisition, state estimation, security assessment and security enhancement – functions of control centers – system load variations – system load characteristics – Real and Reactive power flows and control.
Basic P-f and Q-V loops, Load frequency control - modeling, analysis and control of single and multi-area – tie line with frequency bias control. Need for Automatic Voltage regulator – Modeling – static and dynamic analysis – Reactive powervoltage control devices. Economic load dispatch with and without losses – solution by iteration method (no derivation of loss coefficient) – Base point and participation factor – Economic controller added to LFC.
Power System stability – classifications – Rotor angle stability – small signal stability – Effects of excitation system – Power system stabilizer – sub synchronous oscillations – Voltage stability – Voltage collapse – Methods to improve stability