Elementary concepts – properties - concept of gauge and absolute pressure, measurement of pressure using manometers of different types.
Hydrostatic force on plane and curved surface – center of pressure – lock gates - buoyancy and stability of submerged and floating bodies - metacentric height - period of oscillation.
Types of flow, definitions and explanations of unsteady, steady, non-uniform, laminar and turbulent flows. Ideal flow - rotational and irrotational, stream function, potential function. Path line, streak line and stream line – continuity equation – derivation, application of one dimensional steady flow – circulation and vorticity - Basic flow fields such as uniform flow, source, sink, doublet, vortex flow, spiral flow – superposed flows.
Derivation of Bernoulli’s energy equation and Euler’s equation, examples illustrating the use of energy equation. Flow meters - venturimeter, Orifice meter, nozzle, derivation of equations of discharge, pitot tubes – applications to flow measurements - notches and weirs.
Laminar flow through circular pipe – shear stress, pressure gradient, velocity profile, Hagen-poiseuille's equation, power calculations, laminar flow between parallel plates - Couette flow and Poiseuille flow.
Flow in closed conduits – friction loss and flow calculations, turbulent flow, Reynolds number, Darcy-Weisbach equation. Use of Moody’s diagram, minor losses – pipe networks – pipes in parallel and series - equivalent length.
Boundary layer theory, boundary layer equation – Prandtl equation, Blasius solution, drags on flat plate, boundary layer separation and its control.
Dimensional Analysis, Similitude and Model Analysis: Methods of Dimensional Analysis – Rayleigh’s method – Buckingham Pi-theorem – Hydraulic Similitude – model analysis – dimensionless numbers – Model testing of partially submerged bodies – Distorted models and scale effects.