Course Title: 
Principles of Fluid Mechanics
Course Code: 
Year Taught: 
Undergraduate (UG)
School of Engineering

'Principles of Fluid Mechanics' is a course offered in the third semester of B. Tech. in Civil Engineering program at School of Engineering, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham.

Unit 1

Elementary concepts – properties - concept of gauge and absolute pressure, measurement of pressure using manometers of different types.

Hydrostatic force on plane and curved surface – center of pressure – lock gates - buoyancy and stability of submerged and floating bodies - metacentric height - period of oscillation.

Types of flow, definitions and explanations of unsteady, steady, non-uniform, laminar and turbulent flows. Ideal flow - rotational and irrotational, stream function, potential function. Path line, streak line and stream line – continuity equation – derivation, application of one dimensional steady flow – circulation and vorticity - Basic flow fields such as uniform flow, source, sink, doublet, vortex flow, spiral flow – superposed flows.

Unit 2

Derivation of Bernoulli’s energy equation and Euler’s equation, examples illustrating the use of energy equation. Flow meters - venturimeter, Orifice meter, nozzle, derivation of equations of discharge, pitot tubes – applications to flow measurements - notches and weirs.

Laminar flow through circular pipe – shear stress, pressure gradient, velocity profile, Hagen-poiseuille's equation, power calculations, laminar flow between parallel plates - Couette flow and Poiseuille flow.

Flow in closed conduits – friction loss and flow calculations, turbulent flow, Reynolds number, Darcy-Weisbach equation. Use of Moody’s diagram, minor losses – pipe networks – pipes in parallel and series - equivalent length.

Unit 3

Boundary layer theory, boundary layer equation – Prandtl equation, Blasius solution, drags on flat plate, boundary layer separation and its control.

Dimensional Analysis, Similitude and Model Analysis: Methods of Dimensional Analysis – Rayleigh’s method – Buckingham Pi-theorem – Hydraulic Similitude – model analysis – dimensionless numbers – Model testing of partially submerged bodies – Distorted models and scale effects.


  • Streeter Victor L and E. Benjamin Wylie, “Fluid Mechanics”, Tata McGraw Hill, 2010.
  • Modi P. N. and Seth S. M., “Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics including Fluid Machines”, Standard Publishers & Distributors, 2013.


  • Cengel and Cimbala, “Fluid Mechanics”, Tata McGraw Hill Publishers, 2010.
  • Som S K, Gautam Biswas and Suman Chakrabarty, “Introduction to Fluid Mechanics and Fluid machines”, Tata McGraw Hill Education Pvt. Ltd, 2013
  • N. N. Pillai, “Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Machines”, Universities Press, 2008.
  • Subramanya K., “Theory and Applications of Fluid Mechanics”, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co, 1993.
  • J. F. Douglas, J. M. Gasiorek and J. A. Swaffield., “Fluid Mechanics”, Pearson Education, 2008.
  • White, Frank. M, “Fluid Mechanics”, Tata McGraw Hill, 2011.