Symmetry in Crystal Systems : Types of symmetry, plane, axis and centre of symmetry, crystal systems and symmetry elements. Law of rational indices, miller indices, Weiss indices - plane systems, space lattices, unitcells - unitcell dimension, determination. Space lattice - definition and types Bravais lattice - kinds of bravais lattices, number of atoms in SC, BCC, FCC lattices, void space, Radius ratio rule and application. Crystal defects - types of defects in crystals - stoichiometric defect - schottky and frenkel defects - Non-stoichiometric defects - metal excess and metal deficiency defects, influence of defects on the properties of solids.
Electrical and Magnetic Properties : Development of free electron theory to band theory of solids - metals and their properties; semiconductors - extrinsic and intrinsic, Hall effect; Insulators - dielectric, ferroelectric, pyroelectric and peizoelectric properties and the relationship between them. Dia, para, ferro, ferri, antiferro and antiferri magnetic types - selected magnetic materials such as spinels, garnets and perovskites, superconductors.
Diffraction Methods : X-ray diffraction - various methods of X-ray analysis of structure-ray diffraction pattern, X-ray scattering factor. Results and uses of Xray diffraction. Limitations of X-ray diffractions.
Neutron diffraction - principles, electron diffraction patterns, limitations - applications of electron diffraction - structural elucidation. Distinction between X-ray, Neutron and electron diffraction. Structure factor - definition, factors influencing structure factor. Uses of structure factor.
Fourier synthesis - definition, applications of fourier synthesis in crystal structure analysis of S-Tetrazine. Structure of Rutile, Fluorite, Antifluorite, Zinc blende, Wurtzite, diamond and graphite.