Introduction: Hydrologic cycle - systems concept - hydrologic system model - hydrologic model classification. Stream flow measurement - measurement of stage – discharge measurements. Stage – discharge relations - selection of a stream gauging site – stream gauge network.
Evaporation – measurement, estimation and control of evapo-transporation (ET) – estimation of evapo-transpiration – evapo-transpiration and consumptiveuse – measurement of ET – lysimeters and field pots – potential ET and its computation – pan evaporation - Pennman’s method – Blaney Criddle method – reference crop ET and crop coefficient – interception and depression storage.
Infiltration processes – measurement using infiltrometers – infiltration capacity – infiltration indices – Hortan’s model of infiltration. Rain water harvesting – manmade alterations in hydrologic cycle – methods of water conservation.
Runoff - components of runoff - Characteristics of runoff – factors affecting runoff – components of hydrograph – base flow separation – rain fall – runoff relations – flow duration curve - flow mass curve - hydrograph analysis - unit hydrograph theory – derivation of unithydrograph – applications and limitations of unit hydrograph – ‘S’ hydrograph – instantaneous unit hydrograph – unit hydrograph for ungauged catchments – synthetic hydrograph – conceptual elements – linear reservoirs – Nash model. Yield from a catchment – flow duration curves – flow mass curve.
Floods – estimation of peak discharge – rational method - unit hydrograph method. Probabilistic and statistical methods – basic concept of probability and frequency distribution – skewness coefficient – return period discrete distribution – Binomial distribution – continuous distribution – flood frequency analysis – normal, lognormal, Gumbel and Log-Pearson Type III methods. Flood routing – reservoir routing – Modified pulse method – channel routing – Musking hum method.
Planning for water power development – estimation of available water powerpower duration curve - storage and pondage - load studies - load duration curve - variations in load factor - power system load - system integrated operational studies - load prediction - market requirements of power - installed capacity - Benefits evaluation of installed capacity.
Classification of hydropower development - storage power development - runoff river power development - pumped storage power development - small hydro power development.
Hydro power plants - power plant structure - layout of hydropower plants - types of power houses - sizing of power house.
Water conductor system – intakes - location and types of intakes - penstock and pressure shafts - water hammer - water hammer equation - types of surge tanks.