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Course Detail

Course Name Surface Hydrology and Water Power
Course Code 15CVL457
Program B. Tech. in Civil Engineering
Year Taught 2019


Unit 1

Introduction: Hydrologic cycle – systems concept – hydrologic system model – hydrologic model classification. Stream flow measurement – measurement of stage – discharge measurements. Stage – discharge relations – selection of a stream gauging site – stream gauge network.

Evaporation – measurement, estimation and control of evapo-transporation (ET) – estimation of evapo-transpiration – evapo-transpiration and consumptiveuse – measurement of ET – lysimeters and field pots – potential ET and its computation – pan evaporation – Pennman’s method – Blaney Criddle method – reference crop ET and crop coefficient – interception and depression storage.

Infiltration processes – measurement using infiltrometers – infiltration capacity – infiltration indices – Hortan’s model of infiltration. Rain water harvesting – manmade alterations in hydrologic cycle – methods of water conservation.

Unit 2

Runoff – components of runoff – Characteristics of runoff – factors affecting runoff – components of hydrograph – base flow separation – rain fall – runoff relations – flow duration curve – flow mass curve – hydrograph analysis – unit hydrograph theory – derivation of unithydrograph – applications and limitations of unit hydrograph – ‘S’ hydrograph – instantaneous unit hydrograph – unit hydrograph for ungauged catchments – synthetic hydrograph – conceptual elements – linear reservoirs – Nash model. Yield from a catchment – flow duration curves – flow mass curve.

Floods – estimation of peak discharge – rational method – unit hydrograph method. Probabilistic and statistical methods – basic concept of probability and frequency distribution – skewness coefficient – return period discrete distribution – Binomial distribution – continuous distribution – flood frequency analysis – normal, lognormal, Gumbel and Log-Pearson Type III methods. Flood routing – reservoir routing – Modified pulse method – channel routing – Musking hum method.

Unit 3

Planning for water power development – estimation of available water powerpower duration curve – storage and pondage – load studies – load duration curve – variations in load factor – power system load – system integrated operational studies – load prediction – market requirements of power – installed capacity – Benefits evaluation of installed capacity.

Classification of hydropower development – storage power development – runoff river power development – pumped storage power development – small hydro power development.

Hydro power plants – power plant structure – layout of hydropower plants – types of power houses – sizing of power house.

Water conductor system – intakes – location and types of intakes – penstock and pressure shafts – water hammer – water hammer equation – types of surge tanks.

Text Books

  1. K. Subramanya, “Engineering Hydrology”, Tata McGraw – Hill publishers, New Delhi, 2008.
  2. Duggel K. N., and J. P. Soni, “Elements of Water resources engineering”, New Age International Publishers, 2005.


  • Raghunath H. M., “Hydrology: Principles, Analysis& Design”, New Age International, 2015.
  • P. N. Modi, “Irrigation, Water Resources, and Water power Engineering”, Standard Book House, 2014.

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