Brief History of Semiconductor technology, Scaling Trends and Scaling Methodologies,
Scaling Challenges, ITRS Roadmap; Starting material, silicon structure and properties, Czochralski and Float Zone crystal growth, GaAs growth; Silicon oxidation methods
and properties, Deal Grove Model, Photolithography – masks, pattern transfer
techniques, minimum resolvable feature sizes, UV sources, photoresists.
Diffusion and ion implantation, Types of diffusion, Ficks laws, junction depth, Stopping
mechanisms, Gaussian implantation profile, variations to predicted distribution,
implantation damage and annealing; Deposition requirements and techniques –
Physical and Chemical Vapor deposition, Epitaxial growth techniques; Wet and dry
etching techniques, Etch requirements, Chemical Mechanical Polishing;
Interconnect Technology – Copper and Aluminum interconnects, Silicodes, Isolation,
CMOS and BJT Process flow; CMOS process for sub-100nm era - dielectrics and
gate electrodes, Low K Dielectrics with Cu, Strained silicon, Silicon Germanium,
Process Techniques to overcome Short Channel Effects, Nanolithography
techniques, SOI Technology, Ultra Shallow Junction. Multiple Gate MOSFETs.