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Course Detail

Course Name Wave Optics
Course Code 22PHY314
Semester 6
Credits 4


Unit 1

Interference and diffraction
Learning Objectives
Learn and understand the basic concepts of interference and diffraction.

Diffraction – single, double and multiple slits, circular aperture, Resolution of imaging system, Diffraction grating, re-solving power of grating, Michelson’s Interferometer, Fabry-perot interferometer, Bragg’s Law.

Unit 2

Diffraction theory
Learning Objectives
Learn the method of analyzing the phenomenon of diffraction using Fourier theory.

Fourier method: Fresnel Diffraction Integral, Uniform Amplitude and Phase Distribution, Fraunhofer approximation, Fraunhofer Diffraction by a Long Narrow Slit, Fraunhofer Diffraction by a Rectangular Aperture, Fraunhofer Diffraction by a Circular Aperture, Array of Identical Apertures, Spatial Frequency Filtering.

Unit 3

Polarization and Double Refraction
Learning Objectives
Understand and analyze the phenomenon of polarization and their sates.

The Phenomenon of Double Refraction, linear, circular, and elliptic polarization, Quarter Wave Plates and Half Wave Plates, Optical Activity, Jone’s Calculus, Faraday Rotation, Theory of Optical Activity.

Unit 4

Learning Objectives
Understand the fundamental aspects of laser, its parameters and laser generation.

Fundamentals, Stimulated emission, Einstein’s coefficients, Absorption and Emission Cross Sections, Light Amplification, Line Broadening Mechanisms, Laser Rate Equations: Two-Level System, Three-Level System, Four-Level System, Variation of Laser Power around Threshold, Optimum Output Coupling.

Properties of Lasers: Laser Beam Characteristics, Coherence Properties of Laser Light, Temporal Coher-ence, Spatial Coherence. Laser Systems: Ruby Lasers, Neodymium-Based Lasers, Nd: YAG Laser, He–Ne Laser, Argon Ion Laser, CO2 Laser, Dye Lasers. Laser Diodes. Optical resonators. Holography: fundamentals, construction and reconstruction of hologram

Unit 5

Optical fibres and wave guides
Learning Objectives
Understand the fundamental aspects of guiding mechanism of optical wave in fiber medium.

Optical fibre, Critical angle of propagation, Mode of Propagation, Ac-ceptance angle, Fractional refractive index change, Numerical aperture, Propagation of light in dielectric medium. Basic Waveguide Theory and Concept of Modes: TE Modes of a Symmetric Step Index Planar Waveguide, Physical Understanding of Modes, TM Modes of a Symmetric Step Index Planar Waveguide, TE Modes of a Parabolic Index Planar Waveguide. Single-Mode Fibres: Basic Equations, Guided Modes of a Step Index Fibre, Pulse Dispersion in Single-Mode Fibres, Dispersion Compensating Fibres. Basics of optical fibre communication system

Objectives & Outcomes

Pre-requisites: Waves and oscillations, Basics theories of interference diffraction, polarization and Fourier transform

Course Objective: The course is framed to provide in depth knowledge in wave optics and its application in various fields.

Course Outcomes
CO 1. Understand the phenomenon of interference and diffraction light wave in various optical

CO 2. Analyze the consequence of diffraction by Fourier techniques and applying them in realistic
CO 3. Understand the phenomenon of polarization of light wave and analyze them by Jone’s calculus.

CO 4. Understand the generation mechanism of laser beam, its characteristic and its application

CO 5. Understand the light guiding mechanism in optical fiber, its characteristic and its day to day

CO-PO Mapping

CO1 3 3 3 3 3
CO2 3 3 3 3 3
CO3 3 3 3 3 3
CO4 3 3 3 3 3
CO5 3 3 3 3 3

Text books & References

Text books

  1. Francis A. Jenkins, Harvey E.White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th Ed, McGraw Hill Education; 2017.
  2. K. Thyagarajan and A.K. Ghatak, Lasers Fundamentals and applications, 2nd Ed, Springer, 2012.
  3. A.K. Ghatak, Introduction to Modern optics, McGraw-Hill (13 December 2016).
  4. Introduction to Fourier Optics, J. W. Goodman, McGraw-Hill. Third Edition, 2004.
  5. Hecht, Eugene, Optics, 5th Ed, Pearson, 2016.


Evaluation Pattern

Assessment Internal External Semester
Periodical 1 (P1) 15
Periodical 2 (P2) 15
*Continuous Assessment (CA) 20
End Semester 50

*CA – Can be Quizzes, Assignments, Projects, and Reports.

Justification for CO-PO Mapping

Mapping Justification Affinity level
CO1-PO5 to PO1 and POS 1 This course imparts fundamental optical knowledge to students and become a foundation for all applied courses. Since the contents given in all five units forms a foundation to wave optics and its applications, all COs in this course exhibits strong affinity with PO1 and PSO1. 3
CO1-CO5-PO2 and POS2 Since all COs are strongly related to fundamental concepts, this course would equip the students in analytical and critical thinking to analyze and find solutions to any scientific problems, Thus, the entire COs are strongly related to PO2 and PSO2 and will have maximum affinity level. 3
CO1-CO5-PO3 Since waves optics is a powerful tool which can be plugged into many applied courses and most of the problems in applied regime may be addressed by the tools of waves and signals, this course imparts underlying scientific knowledge to solve complex problems and to design and develop solutions which enhance the existing scientific knowledge. Thus, PO3 has strong affinity with all COs 3

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