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Course Detail

Course Name Waves, Oscillations and Ray optics
Course Code 22PHY201
Semester 3
Credits 4


Unit 1

Learning objectives
Review of free oscillations of 1D harmonic oscillator. The physical aspects of inertia and return force, physical meaning of ω2 are emphasized. Free oscillations of two coupled oscillators is considered and concept of normal mode is introduced.

Free oscillations of simple systems: Free oscillations of systems with one degree of freedom, linearity and superposition principle, free oscillations of systems with two degree of freedom, Beats

Unit 2

Learning objectives
The number of degrees of freedom is increased from two to very large number and find transverse modes, standing waves of a continuous string. The concept of dispersion relation is introduced. The Fourier analysis of periodic functions is introduced using the modes of string.

Free oscillations of systems with many degrees of freedom: Transverse mode of continuous string, General mode of continuous string and Fourier analysis. Modes of non-continuous system with N degrees of freedom.

Unit 3

Learning objectives
Forced oscillations in closed and open systems where resonances and travelling waves respectively can be found will be studied. Transient behavior of 1D damped oscillator will be reviewed.
Forced oscillations: Damped driven one dimensional Harmonic oscillator, Resonance in a system with two degrees of freedom, filters, forced oscillations of closed systems with many degrees of freedom.
Travelling wave: Harmonic travelling waves in one dimension and phase velocities.

Unit 4

Learning objectives
Superpositions involving different frequencies to form pulses and wave packets will be discussed. The concepts of Fourier analysis will be extended to non-periodic functions.
Modulation, Pulse and wave packets: Group velocity, Pulse, Fourier analysis of pulses, Fourier analysis of travelling wave packets.

Unit 5

Learning objectives
To understand behavior of light rays travelling in free space and incident on reflective surfaces and refractive index discontinuities. To trace rays through optical systems involving such features. To understand the concept of ABCD matrices. To understand Fermat’s principle, and its application for laws of reflection and refraction.

Geometrical optics: Fermat’s principle – Laws of reflection and refraction. Images formed by plane mirror, spherical mirror, spherical refracting surfaces, thin lens, system of thin lens, Lens aberrations, matrix methods in optics, determining Cardinal points, optical instruments.

Objective & Outcomes

Prerequisites: Higher secondary level Mathematics, Optics and Electricity and Magnetism

Course Objective: This course is framed to provide in depth knowledge of waves, oscillations, ray optics and their applications in physical world.

Course Outcomes

At the end of the course students will be able to
CO 1: Understand the phenomenon of free oscillations in one and two degrees of freedom and their applications
CO 2: Understand and analyze the modes of vibrations in continuous and non-continuous systems and their applications
CO 3: Understand and analyze phenomenon of forced, damped driven and harmonic oscillations.
CO 4: Apply Fourier techniques to analyze the characteristic of group velocity, pulse and travelling waves.
CO 5: Understand the phenomenon of ray optics and its usage in optical components.

Skills: Problems solving in oscillations, waves and ray optics towards improving the analytical skills of students.

CO-PO Mapping

CO1 3 3 3 3 3
CO2 3 3 3 3 3
CO3 3 3 3 3 3
CO4 3 3 3 3 3
CO5 3 3 3 3 3

References & Text books

  1. Frank S. Crawford, Jr., Waves, Berkeley Physics Course, Vol. 3, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  2. Hecht, Eugene, Optics, 2nd Ed, Addison Wesley, 1987.

Evaluation Pattern

CO-PO Mapping

Assessment Internal External Semester
Periodical 1 (P1) 15
Periodical 2 (P2) 15
*Continuous Assessment (CA) 20
End Semester 50

*CA – Can be Quizzes, Assignments, Projects, and Reports.

Justification for CO-PO Mapping

Mapping Justification Affinity level
CO1-CO 5 to PO1 and PSO 1 This course is a fundamental course with objective of building strong core fundamentals; hence, all the course outcomes have very strong affinity to PO1 and PSO 1, which is about building fundamentals in science, and create inquisitiveness and problem solving in scientific way. 3
CO1-CO5-PO2 and PSO2 This course is a fundamental course with objective of building strong core fundamentals; hence, all the course outcomes have very high affinity to PO2 and PSO 2, which is about building analytical thinking, which is a core skill in scientific investigation. 3
CO1-CO5 – PO3 This course is a fundamental course with objective of building strong core fundamentals; hence, all the course outcomes have very high affinity to PO2 and PSO 2, which is about developing a research culture. 3

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