Qualification: 
M. Pharm., B. Pham.
rajitha@aims.amrita.edu

Rajitha Panonnummal joined as lecturer in Amrita School of Pharmacy in October 2017. She completed her B. Pharm from National College of Pharmacy Calicut and her M. Pharm from Govt Medical College Trivandrum. She has two years experience in teaching and has more than 5 years research experience, worked as JRF for two years and as SRF for three years from 2012-2017 in Amrita School of Pharmacy.

Publications

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2017

Journal Article

Rajitha Panonnummal, Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Dr. Sabitha M., “Comparative anti-psoriatic efficacy studies of clobetasol loaded chitin nanogel and marketed cream”, Eur J Pharm Sci, vol. 96, pp. 193-206, 2017.[Abstract]


In the present study chitin nanogel loaded with anti-psoriatic drug clobetasol was developed (CLCNG) for its topical delivery in psoriasis. CLCNG had the particle size of 132±14nm, with gel like consistency, stability in refrigerator, having higher drug release properties at acidic pH. CLCNG exhibited significant toxicity towards HaCaT and THP-1cell lines by MTT assay. The uptake of nanogel by HaCaT cell lines was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy. CLCNG at 0.35mg/ml exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity with an average of 65% and 70% inhibition in COX and LOX activities expressed in THP-1 cells. In vitro skin permeation studies revealed the increased transdermal flux with fragmented stratum corneum and loosened epidermal layers in CLCNG treated samples, compared with control drug solution. The in vivo anti-psoriatic studies done on imiquimod model confirmed the potential benefits of the nanogel for the topical delivery of clobetasol in psoriasis.

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2017

Journal Article

Rajitha Panonnummal, Dr. Raja Biswas, Dr. Sabitha M., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Methotrexate in the treatment of psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis: Mechanistic insights, current issues and novel delivery approaches”, Curr Pharm Des, 2017.[Abstract]


Our review is focused on the use of methotrexate in drug therapy of two autoimmune diseases, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The article describes the pathogenesis of psoriasis and RA, the role of methotrexate in the treatment of these diseases with more focused review on the mechanism behind the clinical benefits of methotrexate therapy. Methotrexate due to its cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory activities provides clinical benefits in the therapy of the selected diseases. This review also gives a panorama of the problems associated with the use of methotrexate in the selected diseases and the guidelines provided by FDA for its safe use. The novel colloidal drug delivery systems of methotrexate, with particular emphasis on advantages offered by liposomal formulation, niosomal gel, hydrogel, albumin conjugates, nanoparticles and nano structured lipid carriers in psoriasis and RA are also reviewed. It seemed that the use of newer colloidal carriers with improved skin permeability by minimizing its systemic availability will be a useful strategy to reduce the toxic effects of the drug in psoriatic patients. In rheumatoid arthritis patients, the development of newer therapeutic strategies using appropriate targeting ligands that specifically deliver the drug to the inflamed joint space will help to overcome its toxic effects by minimizing the systemic exposure.

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2017

Journal Article

Rajitha Panonnummal and Sabitha, M., “Anti-psoriatic and toxicity evaluation of methotrexate chitin nanogel in imiquimod induced mice model”, Int J Biol Macromol, 2017.[Abstract]


Methotrexate loaded chitin nanogel (MCNG) was formulated for its topical use in psoriasis. MCNG was characterized by DLS, TEM and FTIR. The MCNG particles were spherical in shape with size of 196±14nm, having surface charge of +9.21±0.42 mv. MCNG exhibited greater swelling and drug release at acidic pH than neutral and alkaline conditions. The treatment with MCNG showed significant level of toxicity on HaCaT and THP-1 cells and was taken up well by HaCaT cells as revealed by fluorescent microscopy. MCNGs exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity as revealed by the inhibitory effects observed on the activity of COX-2 and LOX-5 enzymes expressed in THP-1 cells. Skin permeation studies revealed an increased trasdermal flux of methotrexate from MCNG with loosened stratum corneum and other epidermal layers of skin in comparison with control methotrexate solution treated samples. Significant anti-psoriatic efficacy on imiquimod (IMQ) induced model of psoriasis without any dermal and systemic toxicities suggest that it as an ideal delivery platform for topical delivery of methotrexate in psoriasis. Thus it is expected to become a better alternative for the oral delivery of methotrexate in the selected disease.

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2016

Journal Article

Rajitha Panonnummal, Gopinath, D., Dr. Raja Biswas, Dr. Sabitha M., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Chitosan nanoparticles in drug therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases”, Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1177-1194, 2016.[Abstract]


Introduction: Chitosan, a polymer from the chitin family has diverse pharmaceutical and bio-medical utility because of its easy widespread availability, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, rich functionalities and high drug-loading capacity. Recent pharmaceutical research has examined the use of chitosan-based systems for drug delivery applications in various diseases. The availability of functional groups permits the conjugation of specific ligands and thus helps to target loaded drugs to the site of infection/inflammation. Slow biodegradation of chitosan permits controlled and sustained release of loaded moieties; reduces the dosing frequency and is useful for improving patient compliance in infectious drug therapy. The muco-adhesion offered by chitosan makes it an attractive candidate for anti-inflammatory drug delivery, where rapid clearance of the active moiety due to the increased tissue permeability is the major problem. The pH-dependent swelling and drug release properties of chitosan present a means of passive targeting of active drug moieties to inflammatory sites. Areas covered: Development of chitosan-based nanoparticulate systems for drug delivery applications is reviewed. The current state of chitosan-based nanosystems; with particular emphasis on drug therapy in inflammatory and infectious diseases is also covered. Expert opinion: The authors believe that chitosan-based nanosystems, due to the special and specific advantages, will have a promising role in the management of infectious and inflammatory diseases. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

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2016

Journal Article

G. Divya, Rajitha Panonnummal, Swati P. Gupta, Jayakumar, R., and Sabitha, M., “Acitretin and Aloe-Emodin Loaded Chitin Nanogel for the Treatment of Psoriasis”, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 107, pp. 97-109, 2016.[Abstract]


he present study focuses on the development of an effective topical nanogel formulation of two anti-psoriatic drugs; Acitretin (Act) and Aloe-emodin (AE) using natural polymer chitin. Simple regeneration chemistry was used to prepare Chitin Nanogel Systems (CNGs). The developed control chitin (CNGs) nanogels, acitretin loaded chitin nanogels (ActCNGs) and aloe-emodin loaded chitin nanogels (AECNGs) were characterized by DLS, SEM, FTIR, XRD and TG-DTA. The systems were found to be spherical in shape with a size range of 98 ± 10, 138 ± 8 and 238 ± 6 nm having zeta potential values of +28 ± 3, +27 ± 3 and +25 ± 6 mV for CNGs, ActCNGs and AECNGs respectively. The in vitro haemolysis assay revealed that all the nanogel systems are blood compatible. The systems exhibited higher swelling and release at acidic pH. The ex vivo skin permeation studies using porcine skin confirmed the higher deposition of the systems at epidermal and dermal layers, which was confirmed further by fluorescent imaging. The in vivo anti-psoriatic activity study using Perry's mouse tail model and skin safety studies confirmed the potential benefit of the system for topical delivery of acitretin and aloe-emodin in psoriasis. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

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2016

Journal Article

G. Divya, Rajitha Panonnummal, Gupta, S., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Dr. Sabitha M., “Acitretin and aloe-emodin loaded chitin nanogel for the treatment of psoriasis.”, Eur J Pharm Biopharm, vol. 107, pp. 97-109, 2016.[Abstract]


The present study focuses on the development of an effective topical nanogel formulation of two anti-psoriatic drugs; Acitretin (Act) and Aloe-emodin (AE) using natural polymer chitin. Simple regeneration chemistry was used to prepare Chitin Nanogel Systems (CNGs). The developed control chitin (CNGs) nanogels, acitretin loaded chitin nanogels (ActCNGs) and aloe-emodin loaded chitin nanogels (AECNGs) were characterized by DLS, SEM, FTIR, XRD and TG-DTA. The systems were found to be spherical in shape with a size range of 98±10, 138±8 and 238±6nm having zeta potential values of +28±3, +27±3 and +25±6mV for CNGs, ActCNGs and AECNGs respectively. The in vitro haemolysis assay revealed that all the nanogel systems are blood compatible. The systems exhibited higher swelling and release at acidic pH. The ex vivo skin permeation studies using porcine skin confirmed the higher deposition of the systems at epidermal and dermal layers, which was confirmed further by fluorescent imaging. The in vivo anti-psoriatic activity study using Perry's mouse tail model and skin safety studies confirmed the potential benefit of the system for topical delivery of acitretin and aloe-emodin in psoriasis.

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PDF iconacitretin-and-aloe-emodin-loaded-chitin-nanogel-for-the-treatment-of-psoriasis.pdf

2015

Journal Article

A. J. Sivaram, Rajitha Panonnummal, Maya, S., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Dr. Sabitha M., “Nanogels for Delivery, Imaging and Therapy”, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, 2015.[Abstract]


Nanogels are hydrogels having size in nanoregime, which is composed of cross-linked polymer networks. The advantages of nanogels include stimuli-responsive nature, easy drug loading, and higher drug-loading capacity, physical stability, versatility in design, stability of entrapped drug, and controlled release of the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, protein, peptide and anticancer drugs. Stimuli-responsive nature of nanogel is of particular importance in anticancer and anti-inflammatory drug delivery, as cancer and inflammation are associated with acidic pH, heat generation, and change in ionic content. Nanogels composed of muco-adhesive polymers provide prolonged residence time and increase the ocular availability of loaded drugs. By forming suitably sized complex with proteins or by acting as artificial chaperones, they thus help to keep the proteins and enzymes in proper confirmation necessary for exerting biological activity; nanogels can increase the stability and activity of protein/peptide drugs. Better drug penetrations achieved by prolonged contact with skin contribute much in transdermal drug delivery. When it comes to cancer drug delivery, the presence of multiple interactive functional groups in nanogels different targeting agents can be conjugated for delivery of the selective drugs. This review focuses on applications of nanogels in cancer drug delivery and imaging, anti-inflammatory, anti-psoriatic, transdermal, ocular and protein/peptide drug delivery and therapy.

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2015

Journal Article

Rajitha Panonnummal and Varkey, J., “Anti-inflammatory activity of hmg Co A reductase inhibitors: A comparative study. ”, International Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 3, 2015.[Abstract]


Objective: The purpose of the present study was to reveal the potential pleotropic anti-inflammatory activity of two hmg-co Reductase inhibitors, Rosuvastatin and atorvastatin in comparison with standard drug diclofenac.

Methods: The method used for screening anti-inflammatry activity was In vitro human red blood cell membrane stabilization method.
Results: The results of our study revealed that atorvastatin and rosuvastatin showed effective in vitro(500mcg/ml) anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard drug diclofenac.

Conclusion: The rosuvastatin was more potent anti-inflamatory drug when compared with atorvastatin.

Keywords: Atorvastatin, Rosuvastatin, Membrane stabilizing, Anti-inflammatory

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2014

Journal Article

Rajitha Panonnummal and Varkey, J., “Statins induced nephrotoxicity: a dose dependent study in albino rats”, Interntional journal of Pharmacy and pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 401-406, 2014.[Abstract]


Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the dose dependent effects of atorvastatin on rat kidneys.
Methods: The selected doses of atorvastatin were administered orally for 17 days to rats. The statin induced nephrotoxicity was accessed by carrying out renal function tests and is by renal histopathology analysis. Measurements of antioxidant enzymes were also carried out to check whether atorvastatin at the selected dose level interfere with any of the antioxidant system. Atorvastatin at three doses 5mg/kg, 10mg/kg and 20mg/kg was tested.
Results: Higher doses of atorvastatin exhibits considerable degree of renal toxicity in rats, while the low doses do not interfere with renal functions in rats. Atorvastatin at all the tested dose levels not interfere with cellular anti-oxidant mechanisms.
Conclusions: Atorvastatin at 20mg/kg exhibit significant toxicity on rat kidneys. Atorvastatin at the selected dose level does not interfere with any of the antioxidant mechanisms. It indicated that atorvastatin not cause oxidative stress induced renal damage and rhabdomyolysis may be the reason for renal damage induced by atorvastatin at the high dose level.
Keywords
Atorvastatin, Nephrotoxicity, Oxidative stress

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2013

Journal Article

Rajitha Panonnummal, Varkey, Jb, and Dinoop, D. Rc, “Are statins nephroprotective?:A dose dependent study in albino rats”, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 5, pp. 182-190, 2013.[Abstract]


Purpose:The purpose of the study was to evaluate the dose dependent effects of atorvastatin against vancomycin induced renal damage. Methods:Nephrotoxicity was induced by vancomycin administration at a dose of 200mg/kg twice daily for 7 days. Nephrotoxicity was determined by carrying out renal function tests and is confirmed by renal histopathology. Measurements of antioxidant enzymes were also carried out to determine vancomycin induced alterations in cellular antioxidant status. Atorvastatin at three doses 5mg/kg,10mg/kg and 20mg/kg was tested for protective effect against renal damage induced by vancomycin due to its antioxidant mechanisms. Results:Higher doses of atorvastatin exhibits considerable degree of antioxidant activity and atorvastatin at 10mg/kg provided significant degree of protection. But low dose of atorvastatin was insufficient to provide a protective effect due to inability to restore the altered antioxidant status. Conclusions:Atorvastatin at 10mg/kg exhibit significant antioxidant activity and provide optimum level of protection against Vancomycin induced renal damage. But at 5mg/kg it does not show significant antioxidant effect sufficient to provide a protective effect. Atorvastatin at 20mg/kg showed effective antioxidant action but it failed to provide a protective effect in renal damage,may be due to its direct toxic effect on rat kidney.

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2011

Journal Article

Rajitha Panonnummal, Varkey, J., and D.R, D., “Protective effect of atorvastatin against vancomycin induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats”, Pharmacie Globale (IJCP) , vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1-6 , 2011.

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