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Exfoliative Toxin Mediated Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome: A Review

Publication Type : Journal Article

Publisher : International Journal of Current Research and Review

Source : International Journal of Current Research and Review, Volume 12, Issue 22 (2020)

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Campus : Kochi

School : School of Pharmacy

Department : Pharmacy Practice

Year : 2020

Abstract : Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) is a rare dermatological condition associated with extensive desquamation by toxicogenic strains of staphylococcus aureus. The two known serotypes of exfoliative toxin namely A and B are responsible for this disease entity. Haematogenous dissemination of toxin cause extensive epidermal damage at sites distant to the infectious site. When considering all age ranges, SSSS is more prevalent in infants and children below 5 years but can occur at any age. Initially, symptoms include fever, malaise, dehydration followed by the tenderness of the skin with erythematous rash, flaccid blisters and bullae which may rupture on pressure, leaving superficial crusts. Despite a well-known clinical aspect, several cutaneous diseases may be mistaken for SSSS. Therefore, rapid and definitive histopathological evaluation of the biopsy is essential to confirm the diagnosis. The prognosis is improved by adequate therapy, that is, aggressive fluid replacement, nutritional support and optimal antibacterial policy. Antibiotics covering staphylococcus are the preferred treatment as the disease is caused generally by a single organism, S. aureus, mainly belonging to phage group II, and which include Nafcillin or Oxacillin for methicillinsensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). If cultures are positive for MRSA, vancomycin should be used. Healing occurs within 10 to 14 days without scarring. This article aims to provide an overview of our current understanding of SSSS epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis and management.

Cite this Research Publication : G. Sunil, Vinod, M., and Roshni P. R., “Exfoliative Toxin Mediated Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome: A Review”, International Journal of Current Research and Review, vol. 12, no. 22, 2020.

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