Abstract : Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a rare and heterogeneous group of inherited genetic disorders that are characterized by an absent or impaired immune system. In this report, we describe the use of next-generation sequencing to investigate a male infant with clinical and immunological manifestations suggestive of a PID. Whole-exome sequencing of the infant along with his parents revealed a novel nucleotide variant (cytosine to adenine substitution at nucleotide position 252) in the coding region of the interleukin 2 receptor subunit gamma () gene. The mother was found to be a carrier. These findings are consistent with a diagnosis of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency and represent the first such reported mutation in an Indian family. This mutation leads to an asparagine to lysine substitution ( p.Asn84Lys ) located in the extracellular domain of IL2RG, which is predicted to be pathogenic. Our study demonstrates the power of next-generation sequencing in identifying potential causative mutations to enable accurate clinical diagnosis, prenatal screening, and carrier female detection in PID patients. We believe that this approach, which is not a current routine in clinical practice, will become a mainstream component of individualized medicine in the near future.