In this study, graphene oxide (GO) nanoflakes (0.5 and 1 wt%) were incorporated into a gelatin–hydroxyapatite (GHA) matrix through a freeze drying technique and its effect to enhance mechanical strength and osteogenic differentiation was studied. The GHA matrix with GO demonstrated less brittleness in comparison to GHA scaffolds. There was no significant difference in mechanical strength between GOGHA 0.5 and GOGHA 1.0 scaffolds. When the scaffolds were immersed in phosphate buffered saline (to mimic physiologic condition) for 60 days, around 50–60% of GO was released in sustained and linear manner and the concentration was within the toxicity limit as reported earlier. Further, GOGHA 0.5 scaffolds were continued for cell culture experiments, wherein the scaffold induced osteogenic differentiation of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells without providing supplements like dexamethasone, L-ascorbic acid and β glycerophosphate in the medium. The level of osteogenic differentiation of stem cells was comparable to those cultured on GHA scaffolds with osteogenic supplements. Thus biocompatible, biodegradable and porous GO reinforced gelatin–HA 3D scaffolds may serve as a suitable candidate in promoting bone regeneration in orthopaedics.
Dr. Manitha B. Nair, Nancy, D., Krishnan, A. G., Anjusree, G. S., Vadukumpully, S., and Shantikumar V Nair, “Graphene oxide nanoflakes incorporated gelatin–hydroxyapatite scaffolds enhance osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells”, Nanotechnology, vol. 26, p. 161001, 2015.