Back close

Is gender a risk factor for oral diseases in India? A metadata exploration

Publication Type : Journal Article

Publisher : Public Health Toxicol.

Source : Public Health Toxicol. 2022 Mar 31;2(1):1–14.

Url :,145517,0,2.html

Keywords : periodontitis gender dental cariesoral diseases oral cancer malocclusion

Campus : Kochi

School : School of Dentistry

Department : Public Health Dentistry

Year : 2022

Abstract : The prevalence of oral diseases is high among the Indian population. Gender inequalities exist and understanding them is vital for epidemiology. The objective of this metadata exploration was to compile the evidence of gender susceptibility to oral diseases in India, from metadata studies. Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed/Medline and Scopus databases for systematic reviews and meta-analyses reporting gender susceptibility to five common oral diseases in India. After screening the studies, data were extracted using a customized template. A qualitative synthesis of the data was undertaken, and the results are discussed in comparison to existing paradigms of gender susceptibility. Results: The meta-analysis reveals existence of gender susceptibility to oral diseases, particularly for oral cancer and periodontitis. Dental caries were found to be higher in males (52%) compared to females (48%). Among males the higher susceptibility of periodontal diseases (19.3%) and oral cancer (1.7:1) is mainly attributed to tobacco use and the metadata confirm this. The susceptibility of women to oral diseases can be related to genetic and biological factors and men related to behavioral factors. Gender susceptibility to malocclusion was also found to be higher among males. Conclusions: Gender proved to be a risk factor for oral diseases in India, with comparable metadata of other countries. By identifying gender-based risk groups for oral diseases, interventions or effective strategies can be developed to control and prevent these diseases.

Cite this Research Publication : Karuveettil V, Krishna K, Ramanarayanan V. Is gender a risk factor for oral diseases in India? A metadata exploration. Public Health Toxicol. 2022 Mar 31;2(1):1–14.

Admissions Apply Now