Though relevant in a wide spectrum of situations, participatory management is becoming increasingly pertinent in the management of common property resources. While historically ownership and management of these resources rested with the state, governments' failure to preserve common property resources together with their excessive exploitation for development has led to serious degradation of the environment with the attendant ecological repercussions. Under peoples' participation as an alternative, the beneficiary/client groups are made responsive to the cost of preservation. Such a system makes development with preservation possible and renders the assumed trade-off between development and preservation non-operational.
K. Chopra, Kadekodi, G. K., and Maddipati Narsimha Murty, “Peoples' Participation and Common Property Resources”, Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 24, pp. A189–A195, 1989.