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Risk Factors Associated with Preterm Delivery in Singleton Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India: A Case Control Study

Publication Type : Journal Article

Source : International Journal of Women's Health, Volume 13, p.369—377 (2021)

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Keywords : case control study, preterm birth, Risk Factors, singleton pregnancy

Year : 2021

Abstract : Background: Preterm delivery is a major obstetric complication and a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. It is also associated with significant costs in terms of psychological and financial hardship, to the families.

Objective: The primary objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with all preterm deliveries in singleton pregnancy in a tertiary care hospital and the secondary objective was to determine the fetal outcomes among women with preterm delivery.

Materials and Methods: A case control study was conducted between January 2019 and June 2019 in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of a tertiary care center in Central Kerala, India. Women who delivered before 37 completed weeks of gestation were taken as cases and those who delivered at or after 37 weeks were considered as controls in a 1:1 ratio, approximately. Data regarding 191 cases and 200 controls were taken from delivery room records of the years 2016 to 2018 with the help of a predesigned checklist. Univariate and multivariate analysis were done to determine the magnitude of association between the exposure factors and preterm delivery.

Results: The mean age of study participants among the cases was 29.3 ± 5.1 years and controls was 28.1 ± 4.4. Pregnancy induced hypertension (aOR = 14.60; 95% CI 4.8, 44.1; p< 0.001), abnormal amniotic fluid volume (aOR = 10.68; 95% CI 3.46, 32.98; p< 0.001), premature rupture of membranes (PROM) (aOR = 10.27; 95% CI 4.82, 21.86; p< 0.001), previous history of preterm delivery (aOR = 4.12; 95% CI 1.22, 13.85; p< 0.002), history of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy (aOR = 3.67; 95% CI 1.39, 9.68; p< 0.002), systemic diseases (aOR = 2.78; 95% CI 1.28, 6.39; p< 0.001), anaemia (aOR = 2.54; 95% CI 1.28, 5.03; p< 0.004) were found to be the independent risk factors for preterm delivery. On analyzing the fetal outcomes, the average birth weight of preterm babies was 2 ± 0.6 kg compared to 3.1kg among term babies.

Conclusion: Early detection and adequate treatment of various conditions like anaemia, pregnancy induced hypertension, UTI and systemic illness can help in reduction of the prevalence of preterm delivery.

Cite this Research Publication : S. R. P., P., A., N., A., S., S., A., V. S., A., S., and V., S. S., “Risk Factors Associated with Preterm Delivery in Singleton Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India: A Case Control Study”, International Journal of Women's Health, vol. 13, p. 369—377, 2021.

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