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Publication Type : Journal Article
Thematic Areas : Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine
Publisher : Integrative Cancer Therapies,
Source : Integrative Cancer Therapies, Volume 20, p.1534735421996824 (2021)
Campus : Amritapuri
School : Center for Nanosciences
Center : Amrita Center for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine Move
Department : Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine
Year : 2021
Abstract : Co-therapy with herbal extracts along with current clinical drugs is being increasingly recognized as a useful complementary treatment for cancer. The anti-cancer property of the phyto-derivative acetyl-11 keto β boswellic acid (AKBA) has been studied in many cancers, including prostate cancer. However, the whole extract of the gum resin (BS) and anti-androgen enzalutamide has not been explored in prostate cancer to date. We hypothesized that the BS extract containing 30% (AKBA) with enzalutamide acted synergistically in the early phase of cancer, especially in LNCaP cells, by inhibiting androgen receptor (AR) and by reducing cell proliferation, and further, that the extract would be superior to the action of the active ingredient AKBA when used alone or in combination with enzalutamide. To test our hypothesis, we treated LNCaP cells with BS extract or AKBA and enzalutamide both individually and in combination to analyze cell viability under different levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The inhibition of androgen receptor (AR) followed by the expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and the efflux mechanism of the cells were analyzed to determine the effect of the combination on the cellular mechanism. Cells derived from prostate cancer patients were also tested with the combination. Only 6 µM enzalutamide along with BS in the range of 4.1 µg/ml to 16.4 µg/ml gave the best synergistic results with nearly 50% cell killing even though standard enzalutamide doses were as high as 48 µM. Cell killing was most effective at intermediate DHT concentrations of approximately 1 nM, which corresponds to normal physiological serum levels of DHT. The Pgp expression level and the androgen receptor expression levels were reduced under the combination treatment; the former helping to minimize drug efflux and the latter by reducing the sensitivity to hormonal changes. Furthermore, the combination reduced the PSA level secreted by the cells. In contrast, AKBA could not achieve the needed synergism for adequate cell killing at equivalent concentrations. The combination of enzalutamide and BS extract containing 30% AKBA because of their synergistic interaction is an attractive therapeutic option for treating early stage (hormone-dependent) prostate cancer and is superior to the use of AKBA alone.
Cite this Research Publication : Prathesha Pillai, Ginil Kumar Pooleri, and Shantikumar V Nair, “Role of Testosterone Levels on the Combinatorial Effect of Extract and Enzalutamide on Androgen Dependent LNCaP Cells and in Patient Derived Cells.”, Integrative Cancer Therapies, vol. 20, p. 1534735421996824, 2021.