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From Pixels to Progress: A Case Study on Digital India 

The real identity of India has not reached the world, but ……, our youngsters, 20-22-23 years old youngsters have mesmerised the whole world with their skills in computers.  
Our young IT professionals have given a new path of making a new identity of India. If our country has this strength, can we think something about the country? Our dream is, therefore, of “Digital India”.  

When I talk of “Digital India”, I don’t speak of the elite, it is for the poor people.” 

The inaugural Independence Day address on August 15, 2014, by Prime Minister Narendra Modi emphasized the significance of Digital India as a key agenda for the newly established BJP-led federal government. The prime minister underscored the core principles of e-governance, emphasizing its role in facilitating seamless governance, enhancing efficacy, and fostering economic administration. 

After undergoing liberalization in the 1990s, India experienced a series of reforms. Following the pivotal year of 1991, the economy surged into a phase of remarkable growth. However, what the country eagerly anticipated was a digital revolution that would effectively demonstrate its capabilities on the global stage. Given its abundant resources, India was poised for a digital transformation that could profoundly influence various aspects of society, the economy, and humanity as a whole. A clear indicator of this transition towards a digital revolution was the escalating prevalence of smartphones and widespread 4G streaming, spanning not only urban centres but also rural regions 

Exhibit I charts India’s journey through digital advancement over the past decades. 

Digital India, an ambitious endeavour of the Government of India (GOI), was inaugurated by the esteemed Prime Minister of India, Shri Narendra Modi, on July 1, 2015. Envisioned to empower every citizen digitally and revolutionise the nation, the initiative was launched with a projected budget of approximately Rs. 1.13 lakh crore. The primary objective was to ensure convenient digital access to government services for all residents, achieved by enhancing online infrastructure, broadening internet availability, and fostering nationwide digital inclusivity. Moreover, it sought to enhance citizen-government interactions through e-services, delivering governmental assistance cost-effectively and transparently. 

While the GOI displayed genuine dedication to the initiative, its effectiveness and acceptance across the nation would determine the trajectory of the future. In a country characterised by a substantial population, forecasting the triumph of the program proved challenging. As the government introduced transformative changes to the nation’s operational landscape, what lay ahead was an intricate journey, marked by novel revelations and obstacles. 



The Genesis 

With over 60% of its population in the hinterlands, digitalization and e-governance were of significant importance for India. Connecting the country together would have allowed for greater access to the benefits and opportunities of a modern economy to a larger number of citizens, thereby bridging the economic divide.  

The Information Technology Act, 2000 was the first IT-related regulation that brought technology at the forefront of policy initiatives for India. The National e-Governance plan in 2006 took the vision forward. It had made steady progress through Mission Mode Projects and Core ICT Infrastructure. There were several other initiatives and projects which were undertaken by the government (National eGovernance Plan – NeGP, ICT in Schools initiative, National Knowledge Network Plan). However, the digital divide continued to characterise the nation and its vast population. In 2014, India was placed at the rank of 118 globally (among 182 countries) in the e-government rankings by the UN. While the seeds of digitization had been sowed earlier, the initiative and programs continued to be disjointed. Over the years, India contributed significantly towards IT services, software development and also churning out human resources in the field. However, the availability of electronic government services to citizens continued to be low. The government had in the past taken several initiatives, appreciating the role that technology may play in the coming years. But the results were not noteworthy.  

The technological changes brought through digitalization lay the groundwork for decades to come – increasing economic efficiency and competitiveness, creating new businesses and products, and addressing challenges relating to increasing financial inclusion, improving governance and reducing disparities. All these factors led to the convergence of a cohesive and comprehensive Digital India program envisaged by Prime Minister, Narendra Modi in 2014. 

Digitalizing India 

On August 20, 2014, the cabinet approved Digital India – aimed at transforming India into a digitally empowered society. The program was envisaged under the Department of Electronics & Information Technology (DEITY). The government planned to launch the program in phases between 2014 – 2018. The initiative was broadly aimed at ushering in public accountability by mandated electronic delivery of public services. Budgetary provisions were made in the respective ministries and central /state government ministries to fund the visionary program. Leveraging IT as the growth engine of new India, The Digital India vision provided the intensified impetus for further momentum promoting inclusive growth covering electronic services, products, devices, manufacturing and job opportunities. The initiative identified 21st century India to meet the aspirations of its citizens where the government and its services reach the doorsteps of citizens and contribute towards a long-lasting positive impact. 

Digital India Program 

Digital India Program

Digital India is a comprehensive program designed to equip India for a future centred on learning. Encompassing multiple governmental departments, it operates as an overarching framework. The Indian government launched the “Digital India” program with the aim of ensuring digital availability of all governmental services to citizens. This involved enhancing online infrastructure, expanding internet access, and fostering technological empowerment nationwide. 

This initiative unites various projects such as e-Health, e-Sign, and e-Education under a single umbrella, presenting them as integral parts of a broader context. By integrating all services through the Digital India initiative, the government readies itself for this expansive endeavour, striving to offer user-friendly and secure government services and information ubiquitously across devices. A key facet of Digital India is its aspiration to provide digital services in multiple Indian languages. 

The objectives of the Digital India initiative encompass universal access to information, services, education, and connectivity, reflecting a comprehensive endeavour to foster inclusion and bridge technological gaps for all citizens. 

The program may be identified through its core components: vision, scope, and pillars. 

Vision of the Program 

Digital India was started as an initiative towards m-governance – offering services on Mobile phones and ensuring access to online services to all. It aimed at ensuring digital access, digital inclusion, digital empowerment and bridging the digital divide. The program envisages three vision areas (Exhibit II),  

  1. Digital Infrastructure as a utility to every citizen: A key part of this plan is the use of high-speed internet as a fundamental utility to facilitate the online delivery of various services. It is intended to create the necessary infrastructure for financial inclusion and digital identity, as well as to guarantee that common service centres are conveniently reachable (Goswami, 2016). Government departments and organisations must be able to keep papers for easy online access in “digital lockers,” which would be accessible, shareable private spaces on a public cloud for people’s easy accessibility.  
  2. Governance and Services on Demand: Seamless integration of government services and ensuring their real time availability 
  3. Digital Empowerment of Citizens: One of the best levellers is digital connectedness. Indians from all different socioeconomic and demographic backgrounds are increasingly interacting and communicating with one another via mobile devices and computers connected to digital networks. All people should be literate in technology, have accessible digital materials for everyone, and collaborate in digital networks supporting participatory governance.  

The vision of the program ensures that digital technologies improve the life of every citizen, expand India’s digital economy, and create investment and employment opportunities and create digital technological capabilities in India. Several ideas and thoughts interwoven into a single vision ensure that each of them lead to a larger goal. Taking the vision ahead, while the program was implemented through DeitY, the implementation was carried across various government ministries and departments.  

Scope of the Program 

To realise the vision set forth through the Digital India program, the scope of the program encapsulates the following thrust areas: 

  1. To prepare India for a knowledge future 
  2. On being transformative (Indian Talent [IT] + Information Technology [IT] = India Tomorrow [IT]) 
  3. Making technology central to enabling change 
  4. On being an umbrella program – covering many departments 
Figure 1: Digital India 
Source: Casewriter

Digital India Pillars 

Digital India Scheme is a government-wide initiative that spans various ministries and departments. It combines a huge number of ideas and thoughts into a single, comprehensive vision, allowing each to be implemented as part of a broader purpose. The nine pillars (Exhibit III

Source: Created by Author 

of Digital India signify the nine areas that the government has planned to develop through the initiative. 

  1. Broadband Highways: aims to connect rural areas with broadband, improve broadband in urban areas, and national information infrastructure that integrates the digital infrastructure of India. 
  2. Universal Access to Mobile Connectivity: The initiative is working to widen the reach of its delivery of internet coverage in Indian towns and hamlets; Focus on network penetration and filling the gaps in connectivity in the country. 
  3. Public Internet Access Program: It will empower every citizen by providing them with digitally accessible services; Public Internet Access Programme are Common Services Centres (CSCs) and Post Offices as multi-service centres. 
  4. E-governance: Government Process Re-engineering using IT to simplify and make the government processes more efficient 
  5. e-Kranti: to change how citizens interact with government services by ensuring that all the services are deliverable electronically; transforming e-Governance and promote mobile Governance and Good Governance in the country 
  6. Information for All: breaks the barrier between government services and Indian citizens to shorten the communication gap. The idea that came to fruition is that citizens can get everything they need in one place, with just a few clicks or taps on their phone screens!; Open Data platform facilitates proactive release of datasets in an open format by the ministries/departments for use, reuse and redistribution. Online hosting of information & documents would facilitate open and easy access to information for citizens. 
  7. Electronics Manufacturing: focuses on promoting Electronics Manufacturing in the country with the aim of net-zero Imports.; promoting electronics manufacturing in the country with the target of NET ZERO Imports by 2020 as a striking demonstration of intent.  
  8. IT for Jobs: aims to empower the youth in India. It has been building resources to train them in the IT sector to get opportunities in this emerging sector.; providing training to the youth in the skills required for availing employment opportunities in the IT/ITES sector.  
  9. Early Harvest Programmes: focuses on fulfilling the digital India mission by improving and providing facilities for various areas in India.; Early Harvest Programme basically consists of those projects which are to be implemented within a short timeline.  

Program Backing 

Management Structure 

The Digital India initiative was institutionalised by way of formulation of a Monitoring Committee, a Digital India Advisory Group and an Apex Committee.  

Figure 2: Key components of the Digital India Management Structure 
Source: Created by Case Writers 

Apart from the above, a Council for Mission Leaders on Digital India was constituted to share best practices in various existing and new initiatives under Digital India, as also to sensitise government departments. This was headed by the secretary DeitY. A State Committee on Digital India, headed by the Chief Minister was formulated to institutionalise mechanisms at the state level. Further, Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) was identified to make program level policy decisions, such as according project approvals. The Expenditure Finance Committee (EFC) / Committee on Non Plan Expenditure (CNE) was constituted to financially appraise projects and make recommendations to CCEA. 

Usage of Project Management Information System was made mandatory across each new and existing mission mode projects so as to monitor real-time progress of these projects.

Digital India Corporation 

To achieve the larger goal of the Digital India Program, a Digital India Corporation was set up by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) under section 8 of the Companies Act. Earlier nomenclatured as ‘Media Labs Asia’, it was renamed to Digital India Corporation (DIC) in September, 2017.  

DIC was aimed at offering strategic support to the various government departments and ministries towards capacity building for e-governance projects, encouraging public-private partnerships, identifying and promoting best practices and creating an environment of innovation across domains. DIC is constituted of six divisions as presented in Exhibit IV

DIC Divisions 

Year of Establishment 


Technology Development & Deployment Division 


  • to bring the benefits of innovative solutions for socio-economic uplift at the grass root level of the society 
  • taking the technologies from lab to land and “IT for Masses”. 

National e-Governance Division 


  • implementation of the e-Governance Projects; provide technical and advisory support to Ministries/ Departments, 



  • India’s Citizen Engagement Platform which collaborates with multiple Government bodies/ Ministries 

MeitY Startup Hub 


  • a national coordination, facilitation and monitoring centre that will integrate all the incubation centres, start-ups and innovation related activities of MeitY 

India Semiconductor Mission 


  • To build a vibrant semiconductor and display ecosystem to enable India’s emergence as a global hub for electronics manufacturing and design. 

Digital India Bhashini Division 


  • Develop and maintain a public digital platform for enabling an easy and responsive ecosystem for translation among various Indian languages  

Source: created by authors based on information listed on DIC website

India Stack 

India Stack refers to the open API’s and digital goods aimed at unlocking identity, data and payments, thereby creating a platform for facilitating transactions and providing goods and services. It allows governments, businesses, startups and developers to utilize a unique digital Infrastructure to solve India’s hard problems towards presence-less, paperless, and cashless service delivery. India Stack is the digital public infrastructure (DPI) for India, that seeks to foster innovation and competition, expand markets, close gaps in financial inclusion, boost government revenue collection and improve public expenditure efficiency. 

  1. Identity: Aadhaar forms the bedrock of India Stack and is a set of digital identity products centred around it.  
  2. Payments: the United Payments Interface (UPI), in 2016, catapulted the payment system in India. It enables interoperability between money custodians, payment rails and front-end payment applications.  
  3. Data: The ‘data’ layer of India Stack aims to restore the ownership and control over user data to its rightful owners. It is governed by the Data Empowerment and Protection Architecture (DEPA).  


Figure 3: India Stack Technology Layers 
Source: Created by Casewriters 

The following APIs are part of the India Stack: Aadhaar authentication, Aadhaar e-KYC, eSign, Digital Locker, Unified Payment Interface and Digital User Consent.  

Interestingly, India Stack, as the name may suggest, is not limited to the country alone. The principles and technologies can be applied to any country. India signed MOU with several other countries to share the India Stack as a means to mutual digital advancement. These include, Mauritius, Saudi Arabia, Trinidad & Tobago, Armenia to name a few.  

Practice Development 

Practice Development 

Implementing the Digital India initiative 

The Digital India initiative meticulously planned and targeted the completion of various endeavours, including the development and expansion of critical ICT infrastructure, service delivery enhancements, and more. The implementation approach and methodology considered the following significant aspects:  

  1. Optimal Use of Common ICT Infrastructure: The Common and Support ICT Infrastructure of the Government of India would be fully leveraged by Ministries, Departments, and States. The Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY) would establish standards, formulate policy guidelines, provide technical and mentoring support, conduct capacity building, and engage in research and development.
  2. Alignment with Digital India Concepts: Existing e-governance programs were to be reimagined to align with the principles of Digital India. This involved improving the delivery of government services to citizens through scope expansion, process refinement, adoption of integrated and interoperable systems, and the integration of emerging technologies like cloud and mobile solutions.
  3. State-Specific Initiatives: States were empowered to identify additional initiatives that catered to their distinct socio-economic requirements, enhancing the inclusivity of the program.
  4. Decentralised with Centralised Approach: While adopting a decentralised implementation model, the promotion of e-Government would be facilitated through a centralised initiative as required. This ensured a focus on citizen-centric service orientation, seamless interoperability among various e-Government applications, and the efficient utilisation of ICT resources.
  5. Replication of Successes: Successful implementations would be identified and actively promoted for replication, with necessary customization and productization as needed.
  6. Public-Private Partnerships: Where feasible, public-private partnerships would be employed for e-governance projects, ensuring proper management and strategic oversight.
  7. Encouraging Adoption of Unique IDs:The adoption of a Unique ID system would be encouraged to simplify identification, authentication, and the distribution of benefits.
  8. Restructuring of National Informatics Center (NIC): The National Informatics Center (NIC) would undergo restructuring to enhance its role in providing IT assistance to all government ministries at both federal and state levels.
  9. Chief Information Officer (CIO) Roles: Approximately ten major ministries would establish Chief Information Officer (CIO) positions. These roles, positioned at the level of Additional Secretary/Joint Secretary, would hold significant IT authority within each Ministry, expediting the design, development, and execution of diverse e-governance projects.

Additionally, the Digital India ecosystem included multiple agencies that functioned as facilitators of the program’s success (Exhibit V). 

Agencies Enabling DI Initiatives 


Controller of Certifying Authorities (CCA) 

to license and regulate the working of Certifying Authorities and also to ensure that none of the provisions of the IT Act are violated 

Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) 

strengthening national technological capabilities in the context of global developments in the field and responds to change in the market need in selected foundation areas 

Centre for Railway Information Systems 

develops and manages the Information Technology applications of the Indian Railways 

Common Services Centre 

the access points for delivery of various electronic services to villages in India, thereby contributing to a digitally and financially inclusive society 

Department of Agriculture Cooperation and Farmers Welfare (DAC&FW) 

coordination with state level agencies and implementation of Central Sector Schemes in their respective fields. 

Small Farmers Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) 

establishing an ecosystem for FPOs/FPCs to make them sustainable and viable in the long run 

Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (DEPWD) 

facilitates empowerment of the persons with disabilities 

Department of Finance Services 

covers the functioning of Banks, Financial Institutions, Insurance Companies and the National Pension System 

Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion (DIPP) 

formulation and implementation of promotional and developmental measures for growth of the industrial sector, keeping in view the national priorities and socio-economic objectives 

Department of Science & Technology (DST) 

promotes new areas of Science & Technology, and to play the role of a nodal department for organising, coordinating and promoting S&T activities in the country 

Source: Created by Authors based on information available on Digital India Website

Implementing the Nine Pillars 

Implementing the Nine Pillars  

The Digital India initiative pinpointed nine core areas that the government aimed to prioritize and develop through the program. These nine pillars were put into action through the adoption of diverse strategies and approaches. 

  1. Broadband Highways: this pillar had a budgetary allocation of Rs. 47000 Crore. 
    1. Rural: The National Optical Fibre Network (NOFN) was identified to connect 2,50,000 villages under the Bharat Net Program.
    2. Urban: Government of India granted licences to many service delivery operators or VNO1s (Virtual Network Operators) to leverage their services for the urban areas.  
    3. NII: To speed up the program, NII (National Information Infrastructure) was established so as to deliver high-quality broadband services to government sectors up-to the panchayat level. SWAN, NKN and NOFN were integrated with the NII under the initiative. 
  2. Universal Access to Mobile Connectivity: The objective behind this was to expand the reach of the Digital India Program by enhancing system penetration and the range of services to be introduced. The overarching goal was to address gaps in connectivity. An allocation of Rs. 16,000 Crore was specifically earmarked for this initiative, intended to establish connections in areas that still lacked mobile coverage. 
  3. Public Internet Access Program: This program had two main components: 
    1. Common Services Centre (CSC): CSC’s were created as access points for delivery of government – to – citizen (G2C) services, and reducing citizen effort of visiting government offices. The CSC successor CSC 2.0, was launched in 2015 to expand its strength across India to all gram panchayats. Now, there is CSC 3.0 DSP (District Wise Service Provider). As of May 2023, there were 5,21,150 functional CSCs across India with 4,13,999 of these for rural India.
    2. Post Offices as Multi-Service Centre: While the post office had been around for centuries, they were expanded to serve the everyday needs of Indian citizens, under the program. The Post Offices now function as multi-centers so that people can quickly obtain all government e-services. 
  4. E-governance: This aspect centred on streamlining government procedures and services, concurrently enhancing their transparency. It prompted departments and Ministries to adopt information technology (IT) for the more effective delivery of governmental services across diverse sectors. Moreover, it was required to utilize open application programming interfaces (APIs) for data submission, leveraging UIDAI systems such as Aadhaar for identity verification, and ensuring the accessibility of all databases in digital format.
  5. e-Kranti: The digitization of government services deliverability, such as information services to farmers, digital literacy, mobile banking etc. were achieved through this. This has resulted in the entire system becoming more efficient, transparent, and reliable. 44 mission mode projects were identified under the initiative. 
    Pillar 4 and 5 are further linked together under the National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) 2.0.   
  6. Information for All: This pillar aims to provide accessible and dependable data produced by the line ministries, allowing its utilisation, reuse, and redistribution for the benefit of the Indian population. The government employs diverse online platforms such as Twitter, email, Telegram, and text messages to keep Indian citizens well-informed about its services and initiatives. 
  7. Electronics Manufacturing: The objective of this pillar is to establish an environment that encourages domestic electronics manufacturing. Achieving this goal necessitates a comprehensive approach encompassing multiple aspects such as taxation and incentives, the establishment of incubators and clusters, skill enhancement initiatives, and government procurement practices. 
  8. IT for Jobs: This pillar’s primary emphasis is on imparting IT sector training to the youth. In its early stages, the goal was to train ten million students over a span of five years, aiding their employment prospects in the IT industry. Additionally, the pillar focuses on advancing digitization in the northeastern states of India by establishing information and communication technology (ICT)-enabled growth services through the establishment of Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) centres. Further initiatives include the training of three hundred thousand service delivery agents and the skill development of 5 Lakh rural Telecom Service Providers (TSPs). A budget of Rs. 200 crore was allocated for the realization of this initiative. 
  9. Early Harvest Programs: A range of short-term initiatives were pinpointed, resulting in an instant transformation of the nation’s digital landscape. These initiatives encompassed mass messaging applications, the implementation of biometric attendance systems in government offices, the establishment of Wi-Fi networks in all universities through the National Knowledge Network (NKN), the introduction of e-books as a substitute for traditional books, the use of SMS notifications for disaster alerts, and the commencement of an E-Greetings service on August 14, 2014, aimed at replacing government greetings. 
Digital India Program Initiatives 

Digital India Program Initiatives 

Digital India Program is an umbrella programme that covers multiple projects of various Central Ministries/Departments and States and Union Territories (UTs). The program includes various initiatives launched under the umbrella (Exhibit VI). Further Exhibit VII gives a brief snapshot of the various initiatives in numbers.  

Key initiatives of the Digital India Program 




It provides a 12 digit biometric and demographic based identity that is unique, lifelong, online and authenticable. Further to give statutory backing to Aadhaar ‘The Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Act, 2016’ was notified on 26th March 2016. Over 135.5 crore residents have been enrolled. 

Common Service Centres 

CSCs are offering government and business services in digital mode in rural areas through Village Level Entrepreneurs (VLEs). Over 400 digital services are being offered by these CSCs. So far, 5.21 Lakh CSCs are functional (including urban & rural areas) across the country, out of which, 4.14 Lakh CSCs are functional at Gram Panchayat level. There are 23,035 CSCs are functional in the State of Rajasthan, out of which 18823 CSCs are functional at the Gram Panchayat level. 


Digital Locker provides an ecosystem with collection of repositories and gateways for issuers to upload the documents in the digital repositories. Digital Locker has more than 13.7 crore users and more than 562 crore documents are made available through DigiLocker from 2,311 issuer organisations. 


for providing government services to citizen through mobile. More than 1668 e-Services and over 20,197 bill payment services are made available at UMANG. 


e-Sign service facilitates instant signing of forms/documents online by citizens in a legally acceptable form. The services are being leveraged by various applications using OTP based authentication services of UIDAI. More than 31.08 crore e-Sign issued by all agencies wherein, 7.01 Crore e-Sign issued by CDAC. 


It is a citizen engagement platform that is developed to facilitate participatory governance. Presently, over 2.76+ crore users are registered with MyGov, participating in various activities hosted on MyGov platform. 


National Single Sign-on (NSSO) platform called MeriPehchaan has been launched in July 2022 to facilitate / provide citizens ease of access to government portals. Total 4419 services of various Ministries/States integrated with NSSO. 

Digital Village 

MeitY has also initiated the ’Digital Village Pilot Project” in October, 2018. 700 Gram Panchayats (GPs)/Village with at least one Gram Panchayat/Village per District per State/UT are being covered under the project. The digital services being offered are Digital Health Services, Education Service, Financial Services, Skill Development, Solar panel powered street lights including Government to Citizens Services (G2C), Business to Citizen (B2C) Services. 


e-District is a Mission Mode Project (MMP) that aims at electronic delivery of identified high volume citizen centric services at the district or sub-district level. Presently 4,671 e-services have been launched in 709 districts across India. 

Open Government Data Platform 

To facilitate data sharing and promote innovation over non-personal data, Open Government Data platform has been developed. More than 5.93 lakh datasets across 12,940+ catalogues are published. The platform has facilitated 94.8 lakh downloads. 


e-Hospital application is the Hospital Management Information System for internal workflows and processes of hospitals. Currently, 753 Hospitals have been on-boarded on e-Hospital and ORS has been adopted by 557 hospitals across the country with over 68 lakh appointments booked from ORS. 


It is an open platform for management of registration, appointment scheduling & managing vaccination certificates for Covid-19. It has registered 110 crore persons and has facilitated administration of 220 crore doses of vaccinations. 

Jeevan Pramaan 

Jeevan Pramaan envisages to digitise the whole process of securing the life certificate for Pensioners. With this initiative, the pensioner is no longer required to physically present himself or herself in front of a disbursing agency or the certification authority. Over 685.42lakh Digital Life certificates have been processed since 2014 

NCOG – GIS Applications 

National Centre of Geo-informatics (NCoG) project, is a GIS platform developed for sharing, collaboration, location based analytics and decision support system for Departments. So far, 659 applications across various domains are operational. 

National Knowledge Network 

A high speed data communication network has been established to interconnect institutions of higher learning, and research. So far, 1752 links to Institutions have been commissioned and made operational. 522 NKN links have been connected to NIC district centres across India. 


The Government has approved a new scheme titled “Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan (PMGDISHA)” to usher in digital literacy in rural India by covering 6 Crore rural households (one person per household). It has 6.63 crore registered candidates and out of this, 5.69 crore candidates have been trained and 4.22 crore have been certified. 

Unified Payment Interface 

leading digital payment platform. It has boarded 376 banks and has facilitated 730 crore transactions (by volume) worth Rs 11.9 lakh crore. 

FutureSkills Prime 

MeitY in collaboration with NASSCOM has initiated a programme titled FutureSkills PRIME. The programme is aimed at re-skilling/ up-skilling of IT professionals in 10 new/emerging technologies which include Augmented/Virtual Reality, Internet of Things, Big Data Analytics, Artificial Intelligence, Robotic Process Automation, Additive Manufacturing/ 3D Printing, Cloud Computing, Social & Mobile, Cyber Security and Blockchain. 


The Government has taken necessary measures to tackle challenges with regard to data privacy and data security through administering the Information Technology (IT) Act, 2000 which has necessary provisions for data privacy and data security. India has made it to the top 10 in Global Cyber security Index (GCI) 2020 launched by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) on June 29, 2021, moving up 37 places to rank as the tenth best country in the world on key cyber safety parameters. 


It was introduced in 2012 (renamed in 2015) to connect all 250,000 Gram Panchayats (GPs) in the country and provide 100 Mbps internet connectivity. 


It was initiated in 2015 to transform all Indian cities into smart cities by leveraging various technologies. 

Digitization of Post Offices 

Under the Digital India programme, the government aims to convert ~150,000 post offices into multiservice centres. 

Public Wi-Fi Hotspots 

It was introduced to develop public Wi-Fi hotspots to allow people to access internet without relying on mobile data. 


India Stack aims to develop payment-enabled 

applications, using Aadhaar as the base for authentication. 

Source: Created by CaseWriters based on information made available across GOI websites

The following were the key initiatives launched by the government to realize the goals of Digital India Program: 

  1. Aadhar: Aadhaar, the world’s largest biometrics-based identification system, is a strategic policy tool for social and financial inclusion, public sector service reforms, fiscal budget management, convenience, and people-centric governance. 
  2. Bharat Broadband Network: The Government of India established Bharat Broadband Network Limited as a special purpose vehicle under the Companies Act, with an authorized capital of Rs. 1000 crore. The creation of the National Optical Fiber Network (NOFN) in India has been mandated. By laying incremental fiber, a total of roughly 2,50,000 Gram Panchayats spread throughout 6,600 Blocks and 641 Districts will be covered. 
  3. Centre of Excellence for Internet of Things: to jumpstart the IoT ecosystem and enable India achieve a leadership role in the convergent field of hardware and software by using India’s IT strengths. The center’s major goal is to develop cutting-edge applications and subject expertise. 
  4. Cert-In: CERT-In was established with the goal of securing Indian cyberspace. The service provides security quality management services as well as incident prevention and response services. It has been designated as the national agency to execute the following functions in the domain of cyber security under Section 70B of the Information Technology (Amendment) Act 2008. 
  5. Common Services Centre: CSCs are access points for citizens in rural and distant areas of the country to receive vital public utility services, social assistance schemes, healthcare, finance, education, and agriculture services, as well as a variety of B2C services. It is a pan-India network that caters to the country’s regional, geographic, linguistic, and cultural diversity, allowing the government to achieve its goal of creating a socially, financially, and digitally inclusive society. 
  6. Cyber Swachta Kendra: The Government of India’s Digital India initiative includes the Cyber Swachhta Kendra (Botnet Cleaning and Malware Analysis Centre), which aims to create a secure cyber space by detecting botnet infections in India and notifying, enabling cleaning, and securing end users’ systems to prevent further infections. It was established to meet the goals of the country’s ‘National Cyber Security Policy,’ which aims to create a secure cyber ecosystem. This centre works in close partnership with Internet Service Providers and Product/Antivirus Manufacturers. 
  7. Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana: Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY) is a flagship program of the Power Ministry (MoP) that aims to deliver uninterrupted power to rural India. The government has set a goal of electrifying 18,452 unconnected villages in 1000 days, by May 1, 2018. The DDUGJY can have a substantial impact on rural households, as energy is critical for the country’s growth and development. 
  8. DigiLocker: DigiLocker is a digital wallet that aims to empower citizens. It’s a safe, cloud-based platform for issuing, exchanging, and verifying crucial everlasting documents and certifications. By encouraging the use of digital records, it has established a new paradigm for real paperless governance. Currently, DigiLocker gives access to over 347 crore authentic digital documents issued by over 100 issuers, including the Transportation Department, the Income Tax Department, the Revenue Department, and State and Central Education Boards, among others. 
  9. Digital Saksharta Abhiyan: The Digital Saksharta Abhiyan or National Digital Literacy Mission (NDLM) Scheme was created to provide IT training to 52.5 lakh people across the country, including Anganwadi workers, ASHA workers, and approved ration dealers. The program intends to teach non-IT literate persons how to become IT literate so that they can participate actively and effectively in the democratic and developmental processes while also improving their livelihood. 
  10. Accessible India Campaign & Mobile App: Sugamya Bharat Abhiyaan, or the Accessible India Program, is a national flagship campaign aimed at attaining universal accessibility, which allows individuals with disabilities to have equal access, live independently, and actively engage in all parts of life in an inclusive society. The program aims to improve the built environment, transportation system, and information and communication ecosystem’s accessibility. 
  11. Agri Market Mobile App: The mobile application was created with the goal of keeping farmers up to date on agricultural prices and discouraging them from conducting distress sales. The AgriMarket Mobile App allows farmers to access information about crop pricing in markets within 50 kilometres of their device.  
  12. Beti Bachao Beti Padhao: The program strives to ensure that girls are born, reared, and educated without discrimination so that they can become empowered citizens. In 100 districts, the program connects national, state, and district-level interventions with community-level action, bringing together various stakeholders for greater impact.  
  13. Bharat Interface for Money: Bharat Interface for Money (BHIM) is an app that uses the Unified Payments Interface to make financial transactions simple, easy, and rapid (UPI). It allows for instant bank-to-bank payments and money collection utilising a mobile phone or a payment address.  
  14. Crime & Criminal Tracking Network & Systems: CCTNS (Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems) is a plan based on the experience of a non-plan scheme, Common Integrated Police Application (CIPA). CCTNS aims to develop a comprehensive and integrated system for improving policing efficiency and effectiveness by adopting the e-Governance principle and establishing a nationwide networking infrastructure 
  15. Crop Insurance Mobile App: Crop insurance mobile app can be used to calculate insurance premiums for notified crops based on area, coverage amount, and loan amount if the farmer is a loanee. It can also be used to obtain information on any notified crop’s normal sum insured, extended sum insured, premium details, and subsidy information in any notified area. 
  16. Digital AIIMS:The construction of an effective interface between AIIMS, the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), and the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology was the first stage in the Digital AIIMS project in January 2015. (MeiTY). Every patient who came to AIIMS was given a Digital Identity thanks to the Unique Health Identification Number. 
  17. E-Panchayat: e-Panchayat is a rural e-Government program that provides a full software solution aimed at automating Gram Panchayat duties. It’s a way for panchayat representatives to interact with the rest of the world, with the goal of empowering local communities to showcase and share their social, cultural, and economic practices, tales, and challenges. 
  18. E-Biz: Infosys Technologies Limited (Infosys) is implementing eBiz under the direction and supervision of the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India. The goal of eBiz is to improve the country’s business environment by providing quick and easy access to government-to-business (G2B) services via an internet platform. This will help to cut down on unnecessary delays in the many regulatory processes that are required to start and maintain a firm. 
  19. Aadhar Enabled Payment System: AEPS is a bank-led concept that enables online interoperable financial inclusion transactions at the point of sale (MicroATM) using Aadhaar authentication through any bank’s Business correspondent. It is a payment service that allows a bank client to access his or her Aadhaar-enabled bank account and complete basic banking operations such as balance inquiry, cash deposit, cash withdrawal, and remittances through a Business Correspondent using Aadhaar as his or her identification. 
  20. BPO Promotion Scheme: The India BPO Promotion Scheme (IBPS) aims to encourage the construction of 48,300 seats across the country for BPO/ITES activities. With a budget of Rs. 493 crore, it is dispersed across the states in accordance with their population. This would aid in the capacity building of smaller cities in terms of infrastructural and human resources, and would serve as the foundation for the next wave of IT/ITES-led growth.  
  21. Digidhan Bazaar: Citizens and merchants will be able to conduct real-time digital transactions through the DIGIDHAN Bazaar as part of the program. It intends to assist consumers in downloading, installing, and using various digital payment systems for carrying out digital transactions by holding DigiDhan Melas across the country. 
  22. MyGovPlatform: It is a one-of-a-kind participatory governance effort that involves the whole public. MyGov’s concept is to bring the government closer to the people through the use of an online platform that creates an interface for a healthy exchange of ideas and opinions between citizens and professionals, with the ultimate goal of contributing to India’s social and economic development. 
  23. National Mission on Education: The National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT) was conceived as a centrally sponsored scheme to harness the potential of ICT in the teaching and learning process for the benefit of all learners in Higher Education Institutions at any time and from any location. It is a ground-breaking project by the Ministry of Human Resource Development to meet all of the educational and learning demands of students, teachers, and lifelong learners. 
  24. North East BPO Promotion Scheme: The North East BPO Promotion Scheme (NEBPS) has been approved under the Digital India Program to encourage BPO/ITES operations in the NorthEast Region (NER) in order to create jobs and boost the IT-ITES industry. The following are the goals of NEBPS:  
    1. Creating jobs for the local youth in NER through boosting the IT/ITES industry, particularly through the establishment of BPO/ITES enterprises.
    2. Encouragement of investment in the IT/ITES sector in the Northeast Region in order to broaden the IT industry’s base and ensure balanced regional growth. 
  25. NREGA – Soft: NREGA plans to roll out e-Government across the state, district, and three levels of Panchayati Raj institutions. It uses information technology as a facilitator to empower the average man. NREGAsoft complies with the Right to Information Act by providing information to citizens (RTI Act). It makes all documents such as Muster Rolls, registration application registers, job cards/employment registers/muster roll issue registers, and muster roll receipt registers available to the public. 
  26. OpenForge: OpenForge is the Indian government’s platform for open collaborative e-governance application development. The government hopes to promote the usage of open source software as well as the sharing and reuse of e-governance-related source code through this platform. 
  27. PAY GOV India: A National Payment Service platform has been proposed for an uniform e-Government infrastructure that will provide citizens with an end-to-end transactional experience that involves accessing various services via the internet and making online payments through a payment gateway interface. The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, in collaboration with NSDL Database Management Ltd (NDML), developed a common infrastructure that can be used by the Center, States, and Departments to provide a variety of services through their national and state portals, including the ability to make online payments with net banking, credit cards, and debit cards. 
  28. GI Cloud Program: The program intends to make a multi-level, national cloud-sharing foundation giving affordable, secure, and safe data storage for all. The cloud erases financial boundaries and generates growth through services and products. Giving affordable options to own the expensive hardware needed for data storage. It is a robust catalyst for new businesses, start-ups, and non-profit organizations.  
  29. Market Changes: Changes in consumer refinements and function lie at the center of the movement. India now makes up the biggest YouTube audience by country globally. Besides, Indians’ immense streaming habits win them another amount one ranking for monthly data usage, with smartphone users cooking through an average of 8.48 gigabytes per month. 
  30. Online Labour: Online Labour Index (OLI) states that India forms 24 % of the online labour market share (as of 2017), generating employment openings for software developers, data entry operators, online sales, and creative professionals. E-commerce. 
  31. Investing Sector: Think today, even small villagers just with a few taps can invest in companies that are in the market. The digital revolution is for the mutual fund industry as well. There are various choices for more active digital verification of KYC in mutual funds. Nowadays mutual funds are available online and one can easily apply their form or application related to it. 
  32. Technology Startups: The number of tech start-ups in India has grown by 12-15% during the 2014-19 period, extending the requirement of new job positions in the fields of Big Data, analytics, and cloud computing. Also, there has been an expansion in jobs in the area of cybersecurity, social media services, and mobile application development. The government led by Prime Minister Modi has identified the great potential of startups in changing the economy and unleashing tech-driven conversion. Besides favourable policies, the government shall try to examine more ideas to increase the participation of India’s startups in digital conversion. Today there are about 21,000 startups in India, out of which about 9,000 are technology startups. Several of these are unicorns, holding a cost of over a billion dollars. 
  33. ducation: SWAYAM, ePathshala, Mid Day Meal Monitoring App, OLABS 
  34. Digital Literacy Programs: The Pradhan Mantri Grameen Digital Saksharta Abhiyan (PMGDISHA) b will cover 6 crore households in rural areas to be digitally educated.
Measuring Impact 

Measuring Impact 

The process of digitalization is poised to establish a strong foundation for the forthcoming decades. Its impact extends beyond streamlining government operations, encompassing increased competitiveness and a reduction in global disparities. Given that over 60% of India’s population lives in rural areas, the Digital India initiative carries particular importance for the nation. This endeavour has led to notable progress across diverse sectors. While some of these advancements are quantifiable, many are qualitative in nature, evident through the tangible changes observed by citizens in their surroundings. 

Financial Inclusion 

The diverse undertakings within the Digital India program facilitated the inclusion of small businesses and individuals without banking access into the formal economy. This was achieved by establishing financial records and credit histories, enabling these entities to obtain credit opportunities. The flagship financial inclusion program of the PM Jan Dhan Yojana, along with others initatives, such as Aadhaar integration, UPI, microfinance and P2P lending leveraged technology to provide accessible and affordable financial services to the citizens of India. 

The JAM Trinity – Jan Dhan, Aadhaar and Mobile transformed the digital payment landscape of the country. The government’s pre-budget economic survey in January 2023, noted for UPI to be accounting for 52% of India’s total digital transactions. As per data available on NPCI website, UPI transactions for the month of July 2023 alone stood at INR 15,33, 645.20 Crore 

Bank Name / Type 

Number of Total Beneficiaries (Crore) 

Deposits in Accounts (in Crore) 

Number of Rupay Debit Cards Issued to Beneficiaries (Crore) 

Public Sector Banks 




Regional Rural Banks 




Private Sector Banks 




Rural Cooperative Banks 





Grand Total 




Table 1: PMJAY Beneficiaries (As on August, 2023)
Source: Created by Casewriters based on data available on PMJAY website

Alternate Payment Systems 

The initiative formalised the digital economy in the country by introducing cashless and paperless transactions. Also, introduction of alternate payment systems led to reduced dependence on existing card based payment systems.  

Figure 4: Total Digital Retail Payments

Economic Impact 

The influence of digitalization on the economy is observable across diverse sectors. Within the span of 2014 to 2019, the digital economy experienced a growth rate of 15.6%, surpassing the overall Indian economy by 2.4 times. The pivotal role of investments in propelling this growth is evident through the digital output multiplier, which increased from 1.35 in 2014 to 1.52 in 2019. As per an economic analyst’s report, the Digital India initiative has the potential to increase nation’s GDP by approximately $1 trillion by 2025. Additionally, it could significantly impact critical macroeconomic aspects including employment generation, labour efficiency, expansion of businesses, and generation of revenue, although there is also the potential for negative effects.  

Better Governance  

The Digital India initiative has had a significant impact on e-governance in India by transforming how government services are delivered, making them more accessible, efficient, and transparent. It is now easier to obtain licences, certificates and pay taxes, thereby making governance outcomes efficient. Further, goods and services procurement has been digitalized through the creation of a centrally managed marketplace – Government eMarketplace (GeM), with an annual gross value of approximately USD 14.2 bn. Also, world’s largest vaccination program was rolled out through digital public infrastructure – CoWin.  

  • Online Service Delivery: Digital India has led to the development of numerous online portals and platforms where citizens can access government services and information remotely, reducing the need for physical visits to government offices. 
  • Single Window Systems: Integrated platforms and single-window systems have been established to streamline the process of availing government services. These systems provide a unified interface for citizens and businesses to interact with various government departments. 
  • Digitized Documents and Certificates: The initiative has facilitated the digitization of important documents and certificates, such as birth certificates, land records, and educational certificates. This not only reduces paperwork but also enhances data accuracy and accessibility. 
  • Digital Signatures and Authentication: Digital India has promoted the use of digital signatures and authentication mechanisms, allowing citizens to digitally sign documents and securely access government services online. 
  • e-KYC (Know Your Customer): E-governance platforms leverage Aadhaar-based e-KYC to simplify identity verification, making it easier for citizens to access services, especially in sectors like banking, telecommunications, and public welfare schemes. 
  • Transparency and Accountability: E-governance platforms under Digital India contribute to greater transparency and accountability by allowing citizens to track the status of their applications, monitor government spending, and access information about government policies and decisions. 
  • Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT): The initiative has enabled the targeted delivery of government subsidies and welfare payments directly to beneficiaries’ bank accounts, reducing leakages and ensuring that benefits reach the intended recipients. 
  • Citizen Engagement and Feedback: Many e-governance platforms incorporate features for citizens to provide feedback, suggestions, and complaints. This helps in improving the quality of services and enhancing citizen-government interaction. 
  • Data Analytics and Decision-Making: E-governance systems generate vast amounts of data that can be analyzed to make informed policy decisions and optimize service delivery. 
  • Ease of Doing Business: Digital India has contributed to improving the ease of doing business by digitizing processes related to business registration, licensing, and permits. 
  • Real-Time Monitoring and Reporting: E-governance platforms enable real-time monitoring of projects and services, allowing government authorities to respond promptly to issues and ensure timely completion of tasks. 
  • Smart Cities: Under the Digital India program, the Smart Cities Mission aims to use technology to enhance urban living. This includes the implementation of various e-governance solutions to manage city services efficiently. 

Overall, Digital India has modernized and streamlined the functioning of government services through technology, making them more citizen-centric, efficient, and accountable. It has not only improved the way citizens interact with the government but has also enhanced the government’s ability to provide effective and responsive services. 

Better Connectivity 

Boasting approximately 259 million broadband users, India presently holds the position of the globe’s second-largest telecommunications market and the third-largest internet market. The World Bank’s assessment underscores a significant economic potential within India, given that rural areas exhibit a tele-density of just 45%, despite over 65% of the population residing in villages. The report indicates that an elevation of 10% in both mobile and broadband adoption leads to a surge in per capita GDP ranging from 0.81% to 1.38% in developing nations. 

Citizen Empowerment 

Digital India has considerably reduced the distance between Government and citizens. It has also helped in delivery of substantial services directly to the beneficiary in a transparent and corruption free manner. In the process, India has emerged as one of the pre-eminent nations of the world to use technology to transform the lives of its citizens. 

Access to Information: Digital platforms provide citizens with easy access to government policies, laws, regulations, and public information, enabling them to stay informed and engaged in matters that affect them. 

  • Transparency and Accountability: E-governance initiatives under Digital India promote transparency by allowing citizens to track the status of applications, monitor government spending, and hold authorities accountable for their actions. 
  • Participation in Governance: Digital platforms enable citizens to participate in governance processes, such as providing feedback, suggestions, and complaints through online channels. This allows citizens to have a voice in decision-making. 
  • Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT): Citizens receive government subsidies and welfare payments directly into their bank accounts, reducing intermediaries and ensuring benefits reach the intended recipients, thus empowering beneficiaries economically. 
  • Online Grievance Redressal: Digital India has introduced mechanisms for citizens to lodge grievances online, which are then addressed by relevant authorities in a more efficient and transparent manner. 
  • Digital Literacy: Digital India’s focus on digital literacy programs empowers citizens with the skills needed to navigate digital platforms, access information, and use digital services effectively. 
  • Financial Inclusion: Through initiatives like Jan Dhan Yojana and digital payment systems, citizens gain access to formal financial services, enabling them to manage their finances more effectively. 
  • Access to Education and Knowledge: Digital platforms provide educational resources, online courses, and e-learning opportunities, empowering citizens with knowledge and skill development. 
  • Entrepreneurship and Startups: Digital India has created an environment conducive to startups and entrepreneurship, giving citizens the tools to launch and promote their own businesses. 
  • Healthcare Access: Digital platforms provide citizens with access to healthcare information, telemedicine services, and online consultations, enabling them to take charge of their health and well-being. 
  • Online Civic Participation: Digital India has encouraged citizens to participate in civic activities, such as voting, through online platforms, making the process more convenient and inclusive. 
  • Digital Identity: The Aadhaar system provides citizens with a unique digital identity, enabling them to access various services securely and efficiently. 
  • Social Welfare Programs: Through digital platforms, citizens can enroll in social welfare programs, ensuring that those in need receive assistance in a timely manner. 
  • Awareness and Advocacy: Digital media and social networking platforms empower citizens to raise awareness about social and political issues and advocate for change. 

Overall, Digital India has empowered citizens by providing them with tools, resources, and platforms to access information, engage with government processes, and actively participate in the digital economy and society. It has transformed the way citizens interact with government and society, enabling them to make informed decisions and contribute to their own development and the development of the nation. 

Exhibit VIII 




According to the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), 129 crore residents of India possess Aadhaar as of April 2021. 


As of April 2021, there are ~60.09 million registered DigiLocker users in India. 


As of April 2021, there are >171.51 lakh registered members on MyGov. 


As of November 2020, there were ~146,872 service-ready GPs. 


100 cities have been selected for area-based and pan-city development between 2019 and 2023. 

Common Services Center 

As of 2020, there were 255,798 active CSC IDs and 687 districts had CSCs in India. 

Digitization of Post Offices 

As of February 2020, India Post Payments Bank (IPPB) enabled >1.36 lakh post offices to provide banking services, including access to every Aadhaar-linked bank account, at the customer’s doorstep, resulting in ~2.5x increase in rural banking infrastructure. 

Public WiFi Hotspots 

India’s public Wi-Fi hotspots were estimated to increase from 0.3 million in 2019 to 2.1 million in 2021, according to DigiAnalysis. 


The government uses JAM’s (Jan Dhan-Aadhaar-Mobile) direct benefit transfers for ~317 services. In FY21, it conducted 2.6 billion transactions, transferring >US$ 46 billion to beneficiaries. 


As of July 2019, 23,097,324 beneficiaries were registered; of these, 13,491,306 beneficiaries were certified. 


As of February 2021, 420 e-Hospitals were established across India. 

Source: Created by CaseWriters based on information available across the public domain provides a snapshot of impact some key initiatives of the program have made.

Exhibit IX : Impact of Digital India: Overall Experience & Relevance 

highlights how the program has been received among the citizens. A survey of 500 respondents revealed that a majority of these respondents were happy with their overall experience of Digital India, and considered it to be a relevant and noteworthy moment in outlining the nation’s progress. 


Measuring Impact 

The initiative, launched in 2015, embarked on a journey to revolutionize the nation by harnessing the power of technology and connectivity. Through a multi-pronged approach encompassing infrastructure development, e-governance, digital literacy, and innovation, Digital India has achieved remarkable milestones and catalyzed significant changes across sectors. The impact of Digital India resonates through enhanced citizen empowerment, as individuals from all walks of life have gained access to information, services, and opportunities that were once distant dreams. With a focus on bridging the digital divide, the initiative has succeeded in extending the benefits of digitalization to even the remotest corners of the country, empowering the previously underserved and marginalized sections of society. Moreover, the program’s achievements in e-governance have modernized administrative processes, making them more efficient, transparent, and responsive. The shift from conventional paperwork to digital platforms has not only streamlined government operations but has also nurtured a culture of citizen engagement and participation, reinforcing the principles of democracy. 

The Digital India initiative’s impact on economic growth cannot be understated. The digital ecosystem has provided fertile ground for entrepreneurship and innovation, catalyzing the growth of startups and technology-driven businesses. These endeavors have not only contributed to economic expansion but have also propelled India onto the global stage as a technology hub.  

As we reflect on the journey of Digital India, it is clear that while significant progress has been made, the journey is far from over. Challenges related to digital literacy, cybersecurity, and ensuring equitable access continue to demand attention and concerted efforts. The case study of Digital India stands as an inspiration not only for India but for nations worldwide, showcasing the potential of a holistic digital transformation strategy in fostering inclusive growth and development. In the years ahead, Digital India’s legacy will continue to unfold, shaping the trajectory of the nation’s progress. As stakeholders collaborate, innovate, and adapt, the case study of Digital India will serve as a guiding light for leveraging technology for the betterment of society, furthering the mission of a digitally empowered nation and a brighter future for all. 

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