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Course Detail

Course Name Cellular and Molecular Biology
Course Code 22BIO111
Semester 2
Credits 3


Unit 1


Structure, function and interrelationships between all-important biomolecules (like proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and lipids) that collectively carry out the essential functions of life.

Unit 2

Cell structure, organelles and cell division
Introduction to cell biology. Classification of living organisms. Prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells. Structure and function of cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, the Golgi complex, peroxisomes, vacuoles. Plant cell organelles, cytoskeletal elements and architecture, cell division and cell cycle.

Unit 3

Membrane structure and function
Membrane structure and function. Structure and composition of the cell membrane, membrane proteins, transport across the cell membrane.

Unit 4

Molecular biology
Genes and chromosomes, chromosomal elements, DNA as genetic material. Structure of chromosome, histones and nucleosomes. DNA replication – semi-conservative replication, DNA polymerases, events at the replication form, replication of the lagging strand, telomeres, consequences of defects in telomerase. Replication of genomes – origins of replication, control of DNA replication.

Unit 5

Molecular genetics

Gene expression – promoters, terminators. Transcriptional initiation, elongation and termination, RNA polymerases, the genetic code, codons and anticodons, the ribosome and translation. Gene mutations – missense versus nonsense mutations, insertions, deletions and frameshifts. Genetic reversion and suppression, spontaneous mutations and effects of environmental factors. Principles of genetic engineering – gene cloning and genomics. Perspectives in genetic engineering – applications, moral and ethical issues.


  1. David L Nelson, and Michael M Cox et al., Lehninger principles of biochemistry W H Freeman; 7th edition, (2017).
  2. Bruce Alberts et al., Essential Cell Biology; Richard Goldsby and Thomas J, & F Garland, 4th Edition, (2014).
  3. Alberts, Bruce. Molecular Biology of the Cell, Garland Science; 5th edition (2008).

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