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Unit 1

Chemical Bonding

Review of orbital concept and electronic configuration, electrovalency and ionic bond formation, ionic compounds and their properties, lattice energy, solvation enthalpy and solubility of ionic compounds, covalent bond, covalency, orbital theory of covalency – sigma and pi bonds – formation of covalent compounds and their properties. Hybridization and geometry of covalent molecules – VSEPR theory – polar and non-polar covalent bonds, polarization of covalent bond – polarizing power, polarisability of ions and Fajan’s rule, dipole moment, percentage ionic character from dipole moment, dipole moment and structure of molecules – coordinate covalent compounds and their characteristics, molecular orbital theory for H2, N2, O2 and CO, metallic bond – free electron, valence bond and band theories, weak chemical bonds – inter and intra molecular hydrogen bond – van der Waals forces.

Unit 2

Thermodynamic Parameters

Stoichiometry – mole concept, significance of balanced chemical equation – simple calculations – Conditions for occurrence of chemical reactions – enthalpy, entropy and free changes – spontaneity – Thermochemistry – heats of reactions – (formation, combustion, neutralization) – specific heats – variation of enthalpy change with temperature – Kirchhoff’ relation (integrated form) – bond enthalpy and bond order – Problems based on the above.


Review of molecularity and order of a reaction, rate law expression and rate constant – first, second, third and zero order reactions, pseudo-first order reactions (pseudo-unimolecular reactions) – complex reactions – equilibrium and steady state approximations – mechanism of these reactions – effect of temperature on reaction rates – Arrhenius equation and its significance, Michaelis Menden kinetics-enzyme catalysis.

Unit 3


Electrolytes – strong and weak, dilution law, Debye-Huckel theory, faraday’s laws, origin of potential, single electrode potential, electrochemical series, electrochemical cells, Nernst equation and its application, reference electrodes- SHE, Ag/AgCl, Calomel.


Photochemistry, laws of photochemistry – Stark-Einstein law, Beer-Lamberts law, quantum efficiency-determination, photochemical processes – Jablonsky diagram, internal conversion, inter-system crossing, fluorescence, phosphorescence, chemiluminescence and photo sensitization, photo polymerization.

Text Books


  • Physical chemistry, Puri and Sharma
  • Inorganic chemistry, Puri and Sharma

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