Course Title: 
Embedded Systems
Course Code: 
Year Taught: 
Undergraduate (UG)
School of Arts and Sciences
School of Engineering

'Embedded Systems' is a course offered in B. C. A. (Bachelor of Computer Applications) program at Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham.

Unit 1

An Overview of Embedded System - What is an Embedded System? – Categories of Embedded Systems – Requirements of Embedded Systems - Challenges and issues in Embedded Software Development – Trends in Embedded Software Development - Applications of Embedded Systems.

Unit 2

Hardware Fundamentals for the Software Engineer - Gates – Timing Diagrams – memory – Microprocessors – Buses – DMA – Interrupts - Other Common Parts – Built-ins on the microprocessor – Interrupts - Microprocessor Architecture – Interrupt Basics – The Shared Data Problem – Interrupt Latency.

Unit 3

Survey of Software Architectures - Round Robin – Round Robin with Interrupts – Function Queue Scheduling Architecture – Use of real time operating system. RTOS, Tasks, Scheduler, Shared data reentrancy - priority inversion, mutex binary semaphore and counting semaphore – Selecting an Architecture - Introduction to Real Time Operating Systems - Tasks and Task states – Tasks and Data – Semaphores and Shared Data – Message Queues mailboxes and pipes – Timer functions – Events – Memory management – interrupt routines in an RTOS environment.

Unit 4

Basic Design Using a Real Time Operating System - Overview – Principles – Encapsulating Semaphores and Queues – Hard Real - Time Scheduling Considerations – Saving memory space – saving power - Embedded Software Development Tools - Host and Target Machines – inker/Locators for Embedded Software – Getting Embedded software into the target systems.

Unit 5

Debugging Techniques - Testing on Host Machine – Instruction Set simulators – The assert Macro – Using Library Tools - Future Trends in Embedded Systems - System on a chip (SOC) – Smart Cards and the cashless society – Security in Embedded System.


  • Dr.K.V.K.K. Prasad &Vikas Gupta – Programming for Embedded Systems – Wiley 1st edition 2002
  • David E. Simon – An Embedded Software Primer- Pearson Education Asia – 1999


  • Caroline Yao &Quing Li – Real Time Concepts for Embedded Systems
  • Kirk Zureli - C Programming for Embedded Systems