Systems, Properties, Processes, Cycles; State of a system and state postulate; State and path functions; Temperature and zeroth law of thermodynamics; Pressure and pressure measurement; Energy and its forms: Potential and Kinetic energy, Internal energy; Energy sources; Energy transfer – Heat, W ork, Electricity; Mechanisms of heat transfer; Work: Moving boundary work, Flow work, Shaft, spring, elasticity, surface tension, and electrical work; Energy balance – First law for open and closed systems, steady and unsteady state processes.
Phases and phase diagrams of a pure substance, Saturation, Superheating, T-v, P-v, P-T diagrams and the P-v-T surface; Enthalpy; Property tables; Ideal and nonideal gases: van der Waals, Soave-Redlich-Kwong, Peng-Robinson equations of state; Virial equation and its physical meaning; Compressibility factor.
Estimation of heat capacities: Solids, Liquids, Gases, Mixtures, Temperature dependence; Enthalpy changes: Mixing, Fusion, Vaporization – Clayperon equation, Clausius-Clayperon equation, Watson equation, Trouton’s rule, Kistyakowsky equation; Energy analysis of gas cycles; Energy analysis using property tables.
Mechanical energy balance – Bernoulli equation; Energy transfer by mechanical work: Nozzles and diffusers, Turbines, compressors and pumps, Throttling valves, Pipe and duct flow; Energy transfer by heat: Heat exchangers, Boilers and Furnaces; Energy balance in unit operations: Mixers and splitters; Drying; Evaporation; Crystallization; Leaching; Adsorption; Liquid-Liquid Extraction; Absorption; Distillation; Recycle, Bypass, Purge.
Standard heat of reactions – Combustion and Formation; Hess’s law; Effect of temperature and pressure; Adiabatic reaction temperature; Recycle in reactors; Combined material and energy balance in flowsheets – Degree of freedom analysis; Modular and overall equation-solving approaches.
Entropy and thermodynamic temperature; Combined first and second law for closed systems and cycles: Carnot cycle; Refrigerators, Heat pumps; Thermodynamic efficiency and coefficient of performance; Second law for open systems – Entropy balance; Statistical meaning of entropy.