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Course Detail

Course Name Introduction to Learning and Instruction
Course Code 24CLT504
Program M. Sc. Cognitive Sciences, Learning and Technology
Semester I
Credits 3
Campus Amritapuri


Unit I

Unit I – Foundations of Human Learning from the Perspective of Cognition

Cognitive learning theories, theories of instruction, social learning theories, collaborative learning, intelligence, prior knowledge, self-regulated learning, adult learning vs learning in childhood, learning and excellence.

Unit II

Unit II – Motivational and Emotional Aspects of Learning
Different types of emotions and motivation in the context of learning, academic related emotions and motivation and its impact on learning, self-concept and self efficacy, social-emotional competency

Unit III

Unit III – Instruction and Facilitating Learning

Scaffolding, metacognition, learning in activity, learn transfer, collaborative learning, complex systems of learning, problem based learning, gamification, ICAP model

Unit IV

Unit IV – Technology Enhanced and Digital learning: Digital Learning and Teaching

Learning in virtual environments, computer supported collaborative learning, technology-enhanced learning in different educational contexts, technology supported immersive learning

Unit V

Unit V – Designing and Evaluating Learning and Learning Environments

Learning Sciences, Educational Policy, Embodied Design, Measuring Learning and Change, Design research, ICAP model


Prerequisite: Good reading and writing skills in English

Learning sciences is an interdisciplinary field and based on long-established disciplinary research areas, such as anthropology, cognitive psychology, curriculum and instruction, educational psychology, and sociology. Research in the learning sciences is often situated in problems of practice that occur in a range of “learning” contexts, including formal or informal settings dedicated to schooling, workplace, or leisure/entertainment goals.This course provides an introduction to educational psychology and learning sciences, an interdisciplinary field that investigates how people learn, and how education can be improved. The course covers key theories, principles, and methods in the learning sciences, including cognitive and motivational factors that influence learning, designing effective instructions, and the role of technology in learning.

Course Objectives and Outcomes

Course Objectives:

  1. To gain a basic understanding of the basic concepts and theories of human learning from perspective of cognition and behavior.
  2. To gain basic understanding of instruction & facilitating learning: Students will be able to understand and differentiate between various instructional models, ranging from traditional teacher-centered approaches to modern student-centered and collaborative learning strategies.
  3. To gain an overview of the foundational principles to design effective learning environments
  4. To gain an overview of current and emerging trends within digital learning with the outlook of AI.

Course Outcomes:

  • CO1: Understand and Differentiate Instructional Models:
  • CO2:Apply Instructional Models in Teaching Practice: Students will be prepared to apply a variety of instructional models in their teaching practice, effectively facilitating learning by adapting their teaching strategies to meet the needs and preferences of their students.
  • CO3: Gain information on how philosophy has historically influenced current theories within cognitive sciences.
  • CO4: Gain insights into how empirical research in cognitive sciences has influenced philosophical debates and thinking.
  • CO5: Understand how philosophical concerns issues and debates can inform, clarify and develop concepts and theories within the cognitive sciences, such as attention, memory and perception.


  • Gain an overview of key learning theories, perspectives and concepts in related to cognitive science and technology.
  • Develop a deeper understanding of how learning can be facilitated and designed.
  • Understand how the possibilities and limitation of digital learning as of the current state of the art.
  • Demonstrate an enhanced ability to engage in critical analysis and argument through reading and group discussions.
  • Demonstrate the ability to work in teams and understand multidisciplinary perspectives on Learning and Teaching.
  • Demonstrate confidence in undertaking work through independent learning and taking responsibility for their learning.

CO-PO Mappings

Program outcome PO – Course Outcomes CO Mapping


Evaluation Pattern:

Assessment Internal External
Midterm Exam 30
*Continuous Assessment


End Semester 50

*CA – Can be Quizzes, Assignment, Projects, and Reports, and Seminar

Textbooks and Papers

  • Alexander, P. A., Schallert, D. L., & Reynolds, R. E. (2009). What is learning anyway? A topographical perspective considered. Educational Psychologist, 44(3-4), 176–192.
  • Antonietti, C., Schmitz, M. L., Consoli, T., Cattaneo, A., Gonon, P., & Petko, D. (2023). Development and validation of the ICAP Technology Scale to measure how teachers integrate technology into learning activities. Computers & Education, 192, 104648.
  • Archambault, L., Leary, H., & Rice, K. (2022). Pillars of online pedagogy: A framework for teaching in online learning environments. Educational Psychologist, 57(3), 178-191.
  • Chi, M. T., & Wylie, R. (2014). The ICAP framework: Linking cognitive engagement to active learning outcomes. Educational psychologist, 49(4), 219-243.
  • Chi, M. T., Adams, J., Bogusch, E. B., Bruchok, C., Kang, S., Lancaster, M., … & Yaghmourian, D.
    L. (2018). Translating the ICAP theory of cognitive engagement into practice. Cognitive science, 42(6), 1777-1832.
  • Fischer, F., Hmelo-Silver, C. E., Goldman, S. R., & Reimann, P. (Eds.). (2018). International handbook of the learning sciences. Routledge.
  • Fischer, F., & Opitz, A. (2022). Learning to diagnose with simulations: Examples from teacher education and medical education. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
  • Edwards, R. (2012). Lifelong learning: A posthuman condition? In D. Aspin, J. Chapman, K. Evans, & R. Bagnall (Eds.), Second International Handbook of Lifelong Learning (pp. 151–162). Springer.
  • EUCIS-LLP, European Civil Society for Europe – Lifelong Learning Platform. (2015). Manifesto for the future of learning in Europe. Brussels: EUCIS.
  • Fauré, E., et al. (1972). Learning to be: The world of education today and tomorrow. Paris: UNESCO.
  • Fischer, F., Sommerhoff, D., & Keune, A. (2023). Perspectives on learning from the learning sciences. In International Encyclopedia of Education (Fourth Edition) (pp. 44-56). Elsevier.
  • Greenhow, C., Graham, C. R., & Koehler, M. J. (2022). Foundations of online learning: Challenges and opportunities. Educational Psychologist, 57(3), 131-147.
  • Sawyer, R. K. (Ed.). (2014). The Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences. Cambridge University Press.
  • Slavin, R. E. (2018). Educational psychology: Theory and practice. Pearson.
  • Teasley, S. D. (2019). Learning analytics: Where information science and the learning sciences meet. Information and Learning Sciences, 120(1/2), 59-73.
  • Sawyer, R. K. (2022). An introduction to the learning sciences. The Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences, 1-24.

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