Introduction to Pharmacognosy
- Definition, history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy
- Sources of Drugs – Plants, Animals, Marine & Tissue culture
- Organized drugs, unorganized drugs (dried latex, dried juices, dried extracts, gums and mucilages, oleoresins and oleo- gum -resins).
Classification of drugs
Alphabetical, morphological, taxonomical, chemical, pharmacological, chemo and sero taxonomical clas- sification of drugs
Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin
Adulteration of drugs of natural origin. Evaluation by organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological methods and properties.
Quantitative microscopy of crude drugs including lycopodium spore method, leafconstants, camera lucida and diagrams of microscopic objects to scale with camera lucida.
Cultivation, Collection, Processing and storage of drugs of natural origin
Cultivation and Collection of drugs of natural origin
Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants.
Plant hormones and their applications.
Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants
Conservation of medicinal plants
Plant tissue culture
Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, Nutritional requirements, growth and their maintenance.
Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy.
Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine
Role of Pharmacognosy in allopathy and traditional systems of medicine namely, Ayurveda,
Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine.
Introduction to secondary metabolites:
Definition, classification, properties and test for identification of Alkaloids, Glycosides,
Flavonoids, Tannins, Volatile oil and Resins
Study of biological source, chemical nature and uses of drugs of natural origin containing following drugs
Fibers – Cotton, Jute, Hemp
Hallucinogens, Teratogens, Natural allergens
General introduction, detailed study with respect to chemistry, sources, preparation, evaluation, preser- vation, storage, therapeutic used and commercial utility as Pharmaceutical Aids and/or Medicines for the following Primarymetabolites:
Carbohydrates: Acacia, Agar, Tragacanth, Honey
Proteins and Enzymes : Gelatin, casein, proteolytic enzymes (Papain, bromelain, serratiopeptidase, urokinase, streptokinase, pepsin).
Lipids (Waxes, fats, fixed oils) : Castor oil, Chaulmoogra oil, Wool Fat, Bees Wax
Marine Drugs: Novel medicinal agents from marine sources
‘Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry I Theory’ is a course offered in the fourth semester of B. Pharm program at School of Pharmacy, Health Sciences campus, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham.
Scope & Objectives
Course Duration: 45 Hours
The subject involves the fundamentals of Pharmacognosy like scope, classification of crude drugs, their identification and evaluation, phytochemicals present in them and their medicinal properties.
Upon completion of the course, the student shall be able
- To know the techniques in the cultivation and production of crude drugs
- To know the crude drugs, their uses and chemical nature
- Know the evaluation techniques for the herbal drugs
- To carry out the microscopic and morphological evaluation of crude drugs